Presentation on theme: "Historical Review of Industrial Microbiology. Historical periods of microbial biotechnology (Johnson, M. J. 1971; Glazer, A. N. & H. Nikaido. 1995.) Pre-Pasteur."— Presentation transcript:
Historical periods of microbial biotechnology (Johnson, M. J. 1971; Glazer, A. N. & H. Nikaido. 1995.) Pre-Pasteur period: from the beginning of time up to about 1860 The pre-recombinant DNA era: through 1981 The post-recombinant DNA era: from 1982 onward
The historical events of microbial biotechnology Prehistoric period The Revival and the Industrial Revolution The birth of microbial industry Manufacture of penicillin The exploit of microbial industry The dawn of new microbial biotechnology The exploit of new microbial biotechnology The new impact
Prehistoric period Proving bread with leaven Preservation of milk (yogurt) Cheese production Fermentation of juices to alcoholic beverages (wine) Manufacture of fermented foods, such as kraut, pickles, soy sauce, sourdough bread, beer...
The Revival and the Industrial Revolution - 1 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: Visualization of bacteria, yeasts, and protozoa using microscopes (1674 ~ 1723) Edward Jenner: Development of the first vaccine for treating smallpox (1797)
The Revival and the Industrial Revolution - 2 Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch -1 1857: Demonstrating yeasts were responsible for the production of alcohol and the rod-shaped bacteria produced the lactic acid that caused the wine to sour; demonstrating the souring of milk was caused by the action of microorganisms (Pasteur) 1860: Invented “pasteurization” (Pasteur) 1873 ~ 1876: Investigated anthrax; developed techniques to view, grow, and stain microorganisms (Koch) 1879: Grew weakened strains of microorganisms that could not cause disease but protected against severe forms of the same disease (Pasteur)
The Revival and the Industrial Revolution - 3 Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch -2 1882: Identified the TB organism, the first uncovered cause of a human microbial disease (Robert Koch) 1882: Used Koch’s work to produce a vaccine against anthrax (Louis Pasteur) 1884 ~1885: Developed a rabies vaccine and took the first human trials (Louis Pasteur) Büchner Demonstrated that enzymes extracted from yeast are effective in converting sugar into alcohol (1897)
The birth of microbial industry 1860 to 1900: Production of lactic acid; Anaerobic fermentor used to grow baker’s yeast was changed to aerated fermentor 1915 to 1916: Fermentative production of glycerol, butanol and acetone in Germany ca. 1920: Manufacture of citric acid in a surface process ca. 1920: Invented activated sludge process and aerobic production of yeast with continuous sugar addition 1920~1940: sorbose production (D-sorbitol → L- sorbose)
Manufacture of penicillin 1928~1929: Noticed the inhibition of growth of bacteria (Staphylococcus) by fungi (Penicillium) (Alexander Fleming) 1938~1940: Isolated the antimicrobial agent penicillin (Howard Florey and Ernst Chain) 1930~1940: the invention of agitated and aerated fermentor, the shake flask, and the sterilization of air with fibrous filters 1940 ~ 1945: Establishment of large-scale production of penicillin in USA (submerged liquid culture, aerobic, filamentous fungus, secondary metabolite
The exploit of microbial industry 1944: Streptomycin from Streptomyces 1949: Vitamin B 12 1950s: Manufacture of cortisone (11-hydroxylation) 1956: Manufacture of glutamic acid in Japan 1959: Manufacture of 5’-IMP and 5’-GMP (enzymatic hydrolysis of yeast RNA) 1965: Microbial rennin (for cheese) 1967: Production of fructose by glucose isomerase 1969: L-amino acid by immobilized enzyme 1970: Single cell protein (yeasts and bacteria) from gas oil and n-paraffin by continuous fermentation 1970s: Gibberellins, enzyme inhibitors, Bt-toxin (Bacillus thuringiensis)
The dawn of new microbial biotechnology - 1 1972: Created the first recombinant DNA molecule (Paul Berg) 1973: Produced the first recombinant DNA organism (Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang, and Herbert Boyer) 1974: Showed that DNA can be cut with restriction enzymes and reproduced by inserting a recombinant DNA into Escherichia coli (Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer) 1976: Founded Genentech, Inc., a biotechnology company dedicated to developing and marketing products based on recombinant DNA technology (Herbert Boyer and Robert Swanson)
The dawn of new microbial biotechnology - 2 1977: Reported the production of the first human protein (somatostatin) manufactured in a bacteria by Genentech, Inc. 1978: Announced the successful laboratory production of human insulin in E. coli (Genentech, Inc) 1980: The U. S. Supreme Court ruled in the Chakrabarty case that genetically altered life forms can be patented. 1982: Received approval from the Food and Drug Administration to market genetically engineered human insulin (Genentech, Inc)
The exploit of new microbial biotechnology 1986: Beginning the production of amino acid by genetically engineered bacteria in Japan 1987: Conducted a field trial of a recombinant organism, a frost inhibitor, on a Contra Costa County strawberry patch. (Advanced Genetic Sciences, Inc.) 1994: Completed the world’s first large-scale trials of cheeses made with rennin produced by genetically engineered bacteria in the 1980s (Genencor Inc.)
The new impact 1995: A team used a new approach called whole genome shotgun sequencing to sequence the 1,749 genes (1,830,137 base pairs) of a bacterium in less than a year. This is the first complete genetic map of a free-living organism.
References Glazer, A. N. and H. Nikaido. 1995. Microbial biotechnology : fundamentals of applied microbiology. W. H. Freeman and Company. Johnson, M. J. 1971. Fermentation: yesterday and tomorrow. Chem. Tech., 1: 338-341.
問題 下列人物在工業微生物學發展歷史中的成就與 重要性？ (1) Louis Pasteur, (2) Alexander Fleming, (3) Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer 下列事件在工業微生物學發展歷史中的重要性？ (1) Establishment of large-scale production of penicillin, (2) Genentech, Inc. r eceived approval from the Food and Drug Administration to market genetically engineered human insulin, (3) The U. S. Supreme Court ruled in the Chakrabarty case that genetically altered life forms can be patented
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