Presentation on theme: "Applied and Industrial Microbiology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Applied and Industrial Microbiology Chapter 28Applied and Industrial Microbiology
2 Q&ATo produce ethanol, yeasts require anaerobic conditions. In what widely used industrial product does the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae require aerobic conditions?
3 Food Microbiology28-1 Describe thermophilic anaerobic spoilage and flat sour spoilage by mesophilic bacteria.28-2 Compare and contrast food preservation by industrial food canning, aseptic packaging, radiation, and high pressure.28-3 Name four beneficial activities of microorganisms.
4 Historically…DryingOsmotic pressure (salt or sugar)Fermentation
5 Foods and Disease Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) FDAUSDA
13 Cheese Curd: Solid casein from lactic acid bacteria and rennin Whey: Liquid separated from curdHard cheeses are produced by lactic acid bacteriaSemisoft cheeses are ripened by Penicillium on surface
16 Alcoholic Beverages and Vinegar Beer and ale are fermented starchMalting: Germinating barley converts starch to maltose and glucoseFor sake, rice starch is converted to sugar by AspergillusWine is fermented plant sugarsYeast ferment sugars to ethanol + CO2Grape wine requires bacterial malolactic fermentationAcetobacter and Gluconobacter convert ethanol to acetic acid
17 Microbial Metabolism Sugar Ethanol + CO2 Malic acid Lactic acid Saccharomyces cerevisiaeMalic acidLactic acidLactic acid bacteriaEthanolAcetic acidAcetobacter or Gluconobacter
18 Q&ATo produce ethanol, yeasts require anaerobic conditions. In what widely used industrial product does the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae require aerobic conditions?
19 Is botulism a greater danger in spoilage of canned goods under thermophilic or under mesophilic conditions? 28-1Canned foods are usually in metal cans. What sorts of containers are used for aseptically packaged foods? 28-2Roquefort and blue cheeses are characterized by blue-green clumps. What are these? 28-3
20 Industrial Microbiology 28-4 Define industrial fermentation and bioreactor.28-5 Differentiate primary from secondary metabolites.28-6 Describe the role of microorganisms in the production of industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals.28-7 Define bioconversion, and list its advantages.28-8 List biofuels that can be made by microorganisms.
21 BiotechnologyUse of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a productClassical: FermentationRecombinant DNA
29 Alternative Energy Sources Using Microbes BioconversionBiomassMethane or ethanolFigure 28.15
30 Biofuels Cellulose digested by cellulase Sugars fermented to ethanol or higher alcohols or hydrogenAlgal oilsFigure 28.16
31 Industrial Microbiology and the Future Food processingPharmaceuticals from rDNA technologyEthanol and hydrogenAnd more
32 Are bioreactors designed to operate aerobically or anaerobically? 28-4 Penicillin is produced in its greatest quantities during the trophophase of fermentation. Does that make it a primary or secondary metabolite? 28-5At one time, citric acid was extracted on an industrial scale from lemons and other citrus fruits. What organism is used to produce it today? 28-6Landfills are the site of a major form of bioconversion—what is the product? 28-7How can microbes provide fuels for cars and electricity? 28-8