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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case M I C R.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case M I C R."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case M I C R O B I O L O G Y a n i n t r o d u c t i o n ninth edition TORTORA FUNKE CASE 28 Applied and Industrial Microbiology

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Industrial Microbiology - History Lactic acid and ethanol from large-scale food fermentations Armament-related chemicals such as glycerol and acetone during World Wars I & II Antibiotics following World War II Renewable feedstocks now Traditional & new biotechnology: recombinant DNA technology

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fermentation Technology Industrial fermentation vs. Physiological fermentation Anaerobic Aerobic Microbial, plant, and animal cells

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bioreactors Type: many different designs, most widely used CSTR Size: small to large e.g. 500,000 liters Operation: batch or continuous

5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor Figure 28.10

6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microbial Metabolites Primary metabolites: growth associated Secondary metabolites

7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Primary Fermentation Figure 28.11a

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Secondary Fermentation Figure 28.11b

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Strain Improvement Traditional methods: UV, X rays, chemical mutagen Modern technology

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Immobilization Technology Immobilized enzymes vs. traditional chemical process Immobilized cells: continuous flow processes Materials used fro immobilization

11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Immobilized Cells Figure 28.12

12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Industrial Products Amino acids Citric acid Enzymes Vitamins Antibiotics Steroids Etc. UN 28.1

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Amino Acids L-glutamate (glutamic acid) MSG (monosodium glutamate): flavor enhancer Lysine and methionine: cereal food (feed) supplements Phenylalanine and aspartic acid (L-aspartate): ingredients in the sugar-free sweetener aspartame

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Citric Acid Original source: oranges and lemons Product of mold (Aspergillus niger) metabolism after World War I Use: giving tartness and flavor to foods, antioxidant and pH adjuster in many foods, emulsifier in dairy products

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Enzymes Amylase Glucose isomerase Proteases Rennin Etc. Table 28.6 Use: food industry, laundry detergent, clinical use…

16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Vitamins Vitamin B 12 Riboflavin Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pharmaceuticals Antibiotics: mold or streptomycete Vaccines: antiviral (chicken eggs or cell culture), antibacterial (growth of bacteria), subunit (recombinant DNA technology) vaccines Steroids: cortisone, estrogens, progesterone, conversion of sterol to steroids

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biological Leaching of Copper Ores Figure 28.14a

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microorganisms as products Bakers yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium Insect pathogen: Bacillus thuringiensis

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings BiomassMethane or ethyl alcohol Bioconversion Alternative Energy Sources Using Microorganisms Figure 28.15

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Future Of Industrial Microbiology Foods Fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals Renewable energy and chemical sources (shortage of fossil fuel) Genetic engineering and Metabolic engineering


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