Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Applied and Industrial Microbiology

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Applied and Industrial Microbiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Applied and Industrial Microbiology
28 Applied and Industrial Microbiology

2 Industrial Microbiology - History
Lactic acid and ethanol from large-scale food fermentations Armament-related chemicals such as glycerol and acetone during World Wars I & II Antibiotics following World War II Renewable feedstocks now Traditional & new biotechnology: recombinant DNA technology

3 Fermentation Technology
Industrial fermentation vs. Physiological fermentation Anaerobic → Aerobic Microbial, plant, and animal cells

4 Bioreactors Type: many different designs, most widely used CSTR
Size: small to large e.g. 500,000 liters Operation: batch or continuous

5 Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor
Figure 28.10

6 Microbial Metabolites
Primary metabolites: growth associated Secondary metabolites

7 Primary Fermentation Figure 28.11a

8 Secondary Fermentation
Figure 28.11b

9 Strain Improvement Traditional methods: UV, X rays, chemical mutagen
Modern technology

10 Immobilization Technology
Immobilized enzymes vs. traditional chemical process Immobilized cells: continuous flow processes Materials used fro immobilization

11 Immobilized Cells Figure 28.12

12 Industrial Products Amino acids Citric acid Enzymes Vitamins
Antibiotics Steroids Etc. UN 28.1

13 Amino Acids L-glutamate (glutamic acid) → MSG (monosodium glutamate): flavor enhancer Lysine and methionine: cereal food (feed) supplements Phenylalanine and aspartic acid (L-aspartate): ingredients in the sugar-free sweetener aspartame

14 Citric Acid Original source: oranges and lemons
Product of mold (Aspergillus niger) metabolism after World War I Use: giving tartness and flavor to foods, antioxidant and pH adjuster in many foods, emulsifier in dairy products

15 Enzymes Amylase Glucose isomerase Proteases Rennin Etc. Table 28.6
Use: food industry, laundry detergent, clinical use…

16 Vitamins Vitamin B12 Riboflavin Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

17 Pharmaceuticals Antibiotics: mold or streptomycete
Vaccines: antiviral (chicken eggs or cell culture), antibacterial (growth of bacteria), subunit (recombinant DNA technology) vaccines Steroids: cortisone, estrogens, progesterone, conversion of sterol to steroids

18 Biological Leaching of Copper Ores
Figure 28.14a

19 Microorganisms as products
Baker’s yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium Insect pathogen: Bacillus thuringiensis

20 Alternative Energy Sources Using Microorganisms
Bioconversion Biomass Methane or ethyl alcohol Figure 28.15

21 The Future Of Industrial Microbiology
Foods Fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals Renewable energy and chemical sources (shortage of fossil fuel) Genetic engineering and Metabolic engineering

Download ppt "Applied and Industrial Microbiology"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google