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1 Introduction to Microbiology BIO 6 Denise Lim. 2 ParScore Scantrons for Lecture Tests  Orange, 8.5" X 11"  Do not wait until the day of the exam to.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Introduction to Microbiology BIO 6 Denise Lim. 2 ParScore Scantrons for Lecture Tests  Orange, 8.5" X 11"  Do not wait until the day of the exam to."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Introduction to Microbiology BIO 6 Denise Lim

2 2 ParScore Scantrons for Lecture Tests  Orange, 8.5" X 11"  Do not wait until the day of the exam to buy them

3 3 Use Your Textbook Wisely  Glossary and Index  Appendices  "Check Your Understanding"  Study Outlines  At end of chapters  Review and Study Questions at end of chapters  Answers in the back of the book  Online website 

4 Some other words of advice  Manage your time well  Pay attention to detail  Learn to be a good communicator  Be professional 4

5 5 What is Microbiology?  The study of organisms usually too small to see with the naked eye  Requires a microscope  Microorganisms include:  Bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae, viruses, and animal parasites

6 6 How small is small?

7 Why do we care about microbes?  Some can make us sick (germs)  Most are beneficial  Important part of food chain: photosynthesis to decomposition (rot)  Found in our bodies (probiotics)  Fermentation: cheese, yogurt, wine, beer, vinegar, bread  Pharmaceuticals and medicine 7

8 8 Binomial nomenclature (naming microorganisms)  Two names: Genus and species  Always italicized or underlined  Genus name:  Always capitalized  Usually a noun  Species name:  Always lower case  Usually an adjective, sometimes a proper noun

9 9 All living organisms are either prokaryotes or eukaryotes  Refers to arrangement of genetic material (DNA) in cells  Pro - karyote means “before” nucleus  Eu - karyote means “true” nucleus  Prokaryotes have DNA spread throughout cytoplasm  Eukaryotes have DNA within a membrane bounded nucleus

10 10  Prokaryotes are either bacteria or archaea  All are single-celled organisms  Most are much smaller ( X smaller) than eukaryotic cells  Eukaryotes are everything else: Fungi, protistans, plants and animals  Can be either single- or multi-celled organisms Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

11 11 Bacterial cell on left is 1000X smaller than eukaryotic cell on right

12 12 Size Comparison of two prokaryotes & a eukaryote  Prokaryotes  Epulopiscium: 700 µm  Escherichia coli: µm  Eukaryote  Paramecium: 50 µm

13 What features define life?  Complex organization composed of cells  Ability to grow and develop  Ability to convert energy for own use  Ability to reproduce genetically similar offspring  Presence of genetic material: DNA & RNA  Ability to regulate internal environment (homeostasis)  Ability to respond to environmental stimulus 13

14 14 Bacterial Virus (T4)Animal Virus (Ebola) Are viruses living?

15 15 Why are viruses nonliving?  Noncellular  Composed of genetic material (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat  No metabolic capabilities  Cannot reproduce independently  No ability to regulate or respond to environment

16 16 Important Historical Events: 1600's & 1700's  Development of the Microscope  Animicules visualized  Discovery of immunization & vaccines

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19 's  Development of Cell Theory  Fermentation and Pasteurization  Germ Theory of Disease  Antisepsis and Disease  Importance of hand washing  Antiseptics: chemical compounds that could kill germs

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22 22 Robert Koch  Developed pure culture techniques  Proved that Bacillus anthracis caused the disease anthrax in cattle  Developed Koch’s Postulates: rules for proving a specific microbe caused a specific disease

23 23 Application of Koch’s Postulates

24 's  Discovery of penicillin and other antimicrobial agents

25 25 Staphylococcus aureus inhibition by fungus Penicillium antibiotic

26 's  DNA is the genetic molecule  Genetic Code ’s  Central Dogma  Recombinant DNA technology 's & 1980's  Human Genome Project  Personal “-omics”


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