Presentation on theme: "The Elements of Taste Flavor in Fruits and Vegetables"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Elements of Taste Flavor in Fruits and Vegetables Chuck MarrK-State Research and ExtensionHorticulture
2 A New Area of Study Anatomical and sense in 1920s and 1930s Organoleptic differencesModern ‘sensory analysis’ began in 1950sFirst book on ‘sensory analysis’ in 1959Taste or flavor characteristics of fruits and vegetables not very important in the ‘selection factors’ used by plant breeders until recently. Now being factored in along with other characteristics.
3 Topics Difference between taste and flavor How we perceive taste and flavorDifferences among usMeasuring or predicting flavorSome ways we can determine flavor differences
4 Taste We are able to taste only 4 things SweetSourSaltyBitterThese are sensed in specific locations on the tongue
5 Taste sensation areas on the tongue BitterSourSaltySweet
8 Moves into taste bud in liquid (saliva or juice) Initial taste fades quickly- must be rejuvenated with a new movement of liquid
9 Trigeminic Receptors or “Pain Receptors” in the mouth Hot- (Capsaicin in hot peppers, mustard oil in radish, mustards)Cold- (Menthol, cucurbitacin in cucumber)Astringent (Pucker in persimmon)Induce a pain response.Tolerance varies among individuals.May build up a resistance
10 Taste- A little controversy We are able to taste only 4 thingsSweetSourSaltyBitterOrientals claim to taste anotherUmami (you mommy)- GlutamateEvidence is that it appears to be a legitimate taste factor; however, it is unknown where the taste is sensed on the tongue.
11 Taste Combinations Sweet-Sour Sweet- Salty Sugar Acid Ratio We can mask or alter some tastes by combinations with others. For example, we can make taste less sour by adding sweet…. Actual acidity or sweetness levels may not be exact reflections of what we taste.Taste + Trigeminic ResponsesSweet - Hot
12 Taste vs Flavor Taste- those 4 tastes determined by the tongue Flavor= Taste + Aroma or SmellWhile we can only determine 4 taste factors, it is estimated that we can differentiate over 10,000 aromas or flavors in foods.
13 Aroma is sensed in the nasal passages and usually is a volatile or aromatic compound that moves into the nasal chamber.Aroma is slower to respond that taste because it’s beyond the tongue.
14 Flavor Aroma May be able to sense prior to entering the mouth. May activate or excite the tasting process= “mouth watering” saliva formation anticipating a pleasant taste sensationLots of pleasant and unpleasant sensations- some very closely related
16 Aroma as part of food flavor Compounds that form the primary flavor of a fruit or vegetable are called “character-impact compounds” There are several classes of foods where these compounds can be identified and duplicated.Largely 1 compoundMixture of a small number of compoundsLarge number of compounds- no single oneFoods that number of compounds is so large or complex that we can’t duplicate
17 Some foods with character-impact compounds Single compoundBanana, lemon, pear, cucumber, pepperSmall numberApple, raspberry, tangerine, celery, onion, tomatoLarge numberPeach, lime, pineapple, walnutVery complex-not easily duplicatedStrawberry, chocolate
18 Flavor complex in tomato SugarsVolatile flavor compoundshexanaltrans-2-hexanalcis-3-hexanalcis-3-hexen-1-ol2-isobutylthiozoleAcids (primarily citric)
19 Saturation when additions don’t create a sense of increases May become disagreeable or cause you to lose sensation if concentration is too greatTaste Sensation IncreasesThreshold when you can first senseNo 2 people may be the same in when the threshold occurs or when saturation occurs or how long saturation lasts until a decline starts.Concentration of Taste or Flavor Element
20 Differences Among Us Age Age dulls the senses Youth- sweetOlder- bitterAge dulls the sensesIllness or physical limitations (colds, etc)Male vs femaleMusk aromas sensed differentlyEthnicity or backgroundWhat we like established by what we’re exposed to“Life Altering Experiences”
22 Quantifying Sensory Analysis Triangle test (3 samples- 2 the same)Hedonic ratings (1-10 scale)Offer several sub questionsTaste, color, texture, eye appeal, etcBe very specific in establishing the questionsHow used, family likes, economy, etc
23 Several other components of flavor Texture or ‘mouth feel’Grainy, mushy, crunchy, slimy, chalkyColorAppealing color for the productBoth these factors are independent of taste or flavor but contribute to our determinations of sensory quality.
24 Predicting Sensory Quality pH- acidityOptimum size or maturity indexRefractometer (sugar content)Instron ‘shear press’ (tenderness)Chromatography (gas or liquid)