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Sensory Analysis Lyn Kruger Siebel Institute of Technology The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer.

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Presentation on theme: "Sensory Analysis Lyn Kruger Siebel Institute of Technology The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sensory Analysis Lyn Kruger Siebel Institute of Technology The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer

2 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology The sensory analyst is considered an “instrument”  Senses are used to:  perceive and react  to characteristics of  food and beverages Sensory Analysis

3 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology The sensory analyst is considered an “instrument”:  Measure  Analyze  Interpret Sensory Analysis

4 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Humans as instruments  cognitive and cultural bias  individual acuity differences Sensory Analysis

5 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology Sensory analysts may vary from one test to the next:  Fatigue  Adaptation Sensory Analysis

6 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Ability to discriminate between harmful and benign stimuli  Health and age play a role  Ability to improve with practice Sensory Analysis

7 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Can taste many flavor compounds  Basic tastes  sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami  Acute sense of smell  Trigeminal sensations:  burning, cooling, tingling  > 1,000 odors and flavors in beer Sensory Evaluation: What we know

8 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology Olfactory System

9 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology Trigeminal Sensation

10 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Establish memory for aromas and flavors  recognize and identify aromas and flavors  choose correct descriptors Sensory Evaluation: Training objectives

11 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology Flavor Wheel

12 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Aroma impressions first, “drive by” then 2-3 short sniffs  Small sips  Allow sample to sit on tongue for a moment, then swallow Basic Tastes: Sensory procedure

13 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Avoid oversaturation and sensory fatigue  Allow 15 - 60 seconds between samples to readapt receptors  Less flavored samples before highly flavored samples Basic Tastes: Sensory procedure

14 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Beer sample quickly moderates towards 37°C in the mouth  Immediate (in some individuals copious) secretion of saliva in response to oral stimulation  This is promoted in beer by its acidity, alcohol content and high level of carbonation.  Saliva is a well-buffered, high pH (7.0) diluent, and influences the sensory perception of beer Basic Tastes: What happens

15 Sensory Analysis Lyn Kruger Siebel Institute of Technology BREWHOUSE ASSOCIATED FLAVORS

16 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology Positive Flavors  Malty  Hoppy  Bitter Off flavors  Dimethyl sulfide (DMS)  Isovaleric acid Flavors Associated with Brewhouse

17 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Standard Malts  Cereal  Grain  Sweet  Nutty  Malty  Caramel/Color Malts  Caramel  Toffee  Nutty  Slightly burnt  Roasted Malts  Burnt  Bitter  Coffee Malty: Typical Flavors

18 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology Hoppy  Use Aroma hop varieties  Aroma Associated with Hop Oils :  Floral Compounds  Citrus Compounds  “Noble aroma” -herbal, spicy - oxidation products Bitter  Use Bittering hop varieties  Bitter flavor associated with resins Hoppy & Bitter

19 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor creamed corn, vegetable, oysters, tomato juice  Formation  Precursor (S-methyl methionine [SMM]) formed in the barley  Some SMM remains in the malt  During wort boiling SMM is converted to DMS and lost by volatilization Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS)

20 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor cheesy, sweat socks  Production  Formed in old hops  Organic acid Isovaleric Acid

21 Sensory Analysis Lyn Kruger Siebel Institute of Technology FERMENTATION RELATED FLAVORS

22 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavors fruity, banana, apples, perfumy, solvent, nail varnish remover  Production  Reaction of alcohol group and acid group in the yeast cell  Iso amyl acetate (Fruity)  Ethyl Acetate(Solvent) Esters

23 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor buttery, butterscotch  Production  During yeast growth in fermentation  When the yeast has to make a specific amino acid - valine Diacetyl

24 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor sulfury, rotten eggs, burnt rubber, striking a match  Production  Intermediates in amino acid metabolism  When yeast needs to make sulfur containing amino acids Sulfur Compounds

25 Sensory Analysis Lyn Kruger Siebel Institute of Technology STORAGE ASSOCIATED FLAVORS

26 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Any flavor changes after maturation - generally negative (off-flavors)  Few exceptions (e.g. barley wines)  Flavors normally associated with staling of the beer  Papery  Bready/Cooked  Skunky  Aldehydic Flavors associated with Product Storage

27 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor papery, wet cardboard, stale.  Formation  Oxidation of linoleic acid  Forms trans-2-nonenal (an aldehyde)  Very low flavor threshold (1 ppb)  Oxygen /light promotes reaction Papery

28 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor cooked breakfast cereal, oxidized, cooked  Formation  Overpasteurization( particularly in the presence of air)  Oxidation reactions Bready / Cooked

29 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor Nutty, toffee, honey, green apples, aldehydic  Formation  Degradation of amino acids  Oxidation of higher alcohols  Oxidation of isohumulones  Oxidation of lipids  Oxidation of ethanol (acetaldehyde) Aldehydic

30 Sensory Analysis Lyn Kruger Siebel Institute of Technology CONTAMINATION RELATED FLAVORS

31 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  These flavors are generally off-flavors  Can be microbial or non-microbial  Microbial  Variety - depending on microorganism  Cloves (eugenol, 4-vinylguaicol)  Acidic (lactic, acetic acid)  Diacetyl  DMS  Sulfur Flavors associated with Contamination

32 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor phenolic, cloves, spicy  Formation  Associated primarily with wild yeast  In some beer styles - deliberate Microbial: Cloves / Spicy

33 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor sour, vinegar, sour milk, acetic, lactic acid, acidic  Formation  Beer spoilage bacteria  Lactic acid bacteria - Lactobacillus & Pediococcus  Produce lactic acid and acetic acid (only Lactobacillus) Acidic

34 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor buttery, butterscotch  Formation  Beer spoilage bacteria  Lactobacillus & Pediococcus  Wort spoiling bacteria  Enterobacteriacea Diacetyl

35 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor cooked vegetable, corn, olives, oysters  Formation  Wort spoiling bacteria  Often grow in plate heat exchangers DMS

36 Sensory Analysis: The Importance of Aromas and Flavors on Beer Lyn Kruger, Siebel Institute of Technology  Flavor sulfur, rotten eggs, mercaptan  Formation  Wort spoiling bacteria  Beer spoilage bacteria Sulfury


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