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Principles of Baking Chapter 3 Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla Martel and Eddy Van Damme On Baking 3 rd edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Baking Chapter 3 Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla Martel and Eddy Van Damme On Baking 3 rd edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Baking Chapter 3 Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla Martel and Eddy Van Damme On Baking 3 rd edition

2 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: –understand measurement systems and how to measure ingredients –organize and plan your work more efficiently –understand basic flavoring techniques – prepare items needed prior to actual cooking

3 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Principles of Baking This chapter introduces the student to the scientific basis for what takes place in the bakeshop. Concepts and vocabulary presented here are used and expanded upon throughout the text. Understanding the science of mixing fat, flour and water to make a finished product makes for a well-rounded professional.

4 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Mixing Once ingredients are measured, they must be MIXED Mixing accomplishes: Even distribution of ingredients Breakdown of fats and liquids, causing them to emulsify Activation of the proteins in wheat flour causing formation of gluten Incorporation of air (aeration) into dough.

5 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Mixing Methods

6 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Importance of Gluten Gluten is the tough rubbery substance formed when the proteins glutenin and gliadin in wheat flour is moistened. –Makes bread chewy –Makes cakes light and tender Gluten development affected by –Mixing technique –Presence of fat and moisture

7 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Importance of Moisture Moisture dissolves ingredients, helps hydrate and activates compounds in dough Doughs have low water content. Dough has a firm consistency –Yeast bread dough, cookie dough, pie dough. Batters generally contain more liquids, fat and sugar than doughs. –Cake batter, muffin batter and pancake batter.

8 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Heat Transfer Conduction - movement of heat from one item to another through direct contact. –Pan placed over burner Convection - transfer of heat through a fluid, which may be liquid or gas. –Hot air circulating in oven

9 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Heat Transfer (cont.) Radiation - transfer of heat through waves that move from the heat source to the food. –Infrared cooking –Microwave ovens

10 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Heat Energy in an Oven Conduction (orange waves), Convection (yellow waves) and Radiation (red arrows)

11 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Baking and Cooking Methods Dry-heat cooking uses air or fat and is the principal method to cook: –batter –dough Moist heat uses water or steam for cooking: –fruits –tenderizing foods –reducing liquids

12 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Cooking Methods

13 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved The Baking Process Batters and dough pass through 10 stages during the baking process: 1.Fats melt 2.Gasses form 3.Gasses are trapped 4.Microorganisms are killed 5.Starches gelatinize 6.Proteins coagulate 7.Water evaporates 8.Sugars caramelize 9.Carryover baking occurs 10.Staling begins

14 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved What is Flavor and Taste? Flavor - combination of the aromas, texture (mouthfeel) aromas, tastes, and other sensations in the mouth. The five primary Tastes are: –Sweet –Sour –Salty –Bitter –Umami

15 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Science of Taste Chewing releases flavor compounds in food Taste buds on the tongue detect taste and flavor compounds Aromas and odor compounds reach olfactory bulb through internal and external nostrils

16 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Effects on Flavor Perception Temperature - Foods at warm temperatures offer the strongest tastes. Consistency of the product Presence of contrasting tastes Presence of fats Color

17 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Compromises to Taste Perception Sense of taste can be challenged by factor’s beyond one’s control. –Age –Health –Smoking

18 Book Title Author name © 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved On Baking, 3e Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Describing Foods


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