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Cell Structure & Function (What do cells look like?) (What do cells do?)

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure & Function (What do cells look like?) (What do cells do?)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structure & Function (What do cells look like?) (What do cells do?)

2 2 main types of cells  Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic)  Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic)

3 Prokaryotes  Simple cells  Unicellular only  Typical size 1-2 μm in diameter  No nuclear membrane or other membrane- bound organelles  DNA is in a tangled loop  Some prokaryotes have a second loop of DNA called a plasmid  Cell walls vary but can be very “tough” to help the cell survive harsh environments

4 Prokaryotic cell:

5 Eukaryotes  Complex cells  Both unicellular & multicellular organisms. (All multicellular organisms are this type.)  Typically about 10x larger than prokaryotic cells  Many organelles – some common, some only in plant cells, some only in animal cells  DNA is extremely long so the cell condenses it to form chromosomes  Some eukaryotic cells differentiate. This means they can become different types of cells: skin cells, muscle cells, blood cells, fat cells, etc. Plants have different types of cells too.

6 Eukaryotic cell:

7 Comparing prokaryotes to eukaryotes Prokaryotic cellEukaryotic cell Simple or Complex? Size of Cell? Unicellular, Multicellular, or Both Any membrane-bound organelles? What does the DNA look like?

8 Comparing prokaryotes to eukaryotes Prokaryotic cellEukaryotic cell Simple or Complex?SimpleComplex Size of Cell? 1 – 2 μm Typically 10x larger Unicellular, Multicellular, or BothUnicellularBoth Any membrane-bound organelles?NoYes What does the DNA look like? Tangled loop Chromosomes

9 Organelles  Little “organs” inside cells.  Only found in eukaryotic cells.  Each type of organelle has its own purpose/function for the cell.  Organelles may have once been prokaryotic cells that were engulfed and then incorporated into a larger cell instead of being broken down as food.

10 Nucleus  Holds genetic material 2007

11 Nuclear membrane  Selects what can enter and leave the nucleus

12 Nucleolus  An area in the nucleus that makes ribosomes

13 Nuclear pore  Controls what molecules can enter/leave the nucleus re%20%20.jpg

14 Cell wall  Supports and protects the cell. Root cell:

15 Cell membrane  Selects what can enter and leave the cell.

16 Cytoplasm  Includes the internal part of the cell except the nucleus.

17 Cytosol  The gel-like fluid that surrounds the organelles in the cytoplasm.

18 Vacuoles  Storage

19 Lysosomes  Decomposes/digests molecules

20 Ribosomes  Makes proteins (protein synthesis) (Tiny dots!)

21 Endoplasmic reticulum  Transports molecules around the cell  Rough E.R. has ribosomes on it  Smooth E.R. lacks ribosomes

22 Golgi apparatus  Packages molecules to be released

23 Mitochondria  Makes ATP energy from the sugars that you ate earlier com/prod/LC/LCcellunit.html&h=238&w=416&sz=19&hl=en&start=40&tbnid=oAv7kJ4T5Z0hFM:&tbnh=72&tbnw=125&prev=/imag es%3Fq%3Dmitochondria%2BTEM%26start%3D20%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN November 2007

24 Cytoskeleton  Supports cells with no cell wall (cyto- means cell)  Microtubules: thicker, hollow tubes  Microfilaments: thinner strands of protein 3m.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www5.pbrc.hawaii.edu/allen/ch07/11-pmcyp html&h=711&w=640&sz=173&hl=en&start=3&tbnid=eKDoQPVtK0FPzM:&tbnh=140&tbnw=126&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmicrofilaments%2BTEM%26gbv %3D2%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den

25 Centrioles  Helps the cell divide View of one centriole from the end. _TEM.jpg/180px-Spindle_centriole_-_embryonic_brain_mouse_-_TEM.jpg

26 Chloroplasts  Converts light to sugar molecules (photosynthesis)

27 Where to find these organelles: Cell Wall Cell membrane Nucleus Nuclear membrane Nucleolus Nuclear pore Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus RibosomesLysosomesVacuolesCentriolesMitochondriaChloroplastsCytoplasmCytosol Cytoskeleton: microstubules Cytoskeleton: microfilamanets Plant cells only Animal cells only All eukaryotic cells

28 Where to find these organelles: Cell Wall Cell membrane Nucleus Nuclear membrane Nucleolus Nuclear pore Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus RibosomesLysosomesVacuolesCentriolesMitochondriaChloroplastsCytoplasmCytosol Cytoskeleton: microstubules Cytoskeleton: microfilamanets Plant cells only XX Animal cells only XXX All eukaryotic cells XXXXXXXXXXXXX

29 Plant Cell & Animal Cell Plant CellAnimal Cell

30 Cell Video deoplayer/?src=ai4/harvard/harvard.swf &width=640&height=520


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