2The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.New cells are produced from existing cells.
3Cells TimelineRobert Hooke (1665): studied cork; saw tiny, regular shaped “boxes”; called them cells.Matthais Schleiden (1838)All plants are made of cellsTheodor Schwann (1839)All animals are made of cellsRudolf Virchow (1855)Concluded all cells come from other cellsHe thought the cells looked like prison rooms and the rooms priests were housed in the monestaries therefore called them cells.Go to Section:
4There are two categories of cells: Cell TypesThere are two categories of cells:Eukaryotic – Have a nucleus and membrane bound organellesExamples include plants, animals, fungi, and protists.
5There are two categories of cells: Cell TypesThere are two categories of cells:2. Prokaryotic – Have no nucleus and no membrane bound organellesBacteria are anexample.
8Two specific organelles have made Eukaryotic cells be the most successful…. ChloroplastConsumes H2O and CO2 as it takes in energy from the sun to make sugar (food)MitochondriaConsumes O2 to make energy (ATP) from sugar (food)
9But guess what…. ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY These two organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are thought once be their own prokaryotic cell living inside a larger host cell…….these “prokaryotes” provided nutrients/oxygen to the host and in turn got a safe place to live.ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY
10Since BOTH these organelles have their OWN DNA even more support that they….. Chloroplast have DNAMitochondria have DNA
11Endosymbiotic theory for dummies….. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-FQmAnmLZtE (mr. Anderson teacher talking with pictures)
16Organelles in Plant vs. Animal Cells Plant Cells:ChloroplastsCell wallVacuoles are much largerAnimal Cells:LysosomesVacuoles are much smaller
17Plant Cells Characteristics of Plant Cells: Cell WallNucleusChloroplastCharacteristics of Plant Cells:Rectangular or square shapeCell wall that is composed mostly of cellulose
18Animal CellsNotice the circular shape of animal cells. Not all animals cells have this shape, but it is more common than not.Cell membraneNucleus
19OrganellesOrganelles - Specialized structures in a cell that have a specific function.
20Cell MembraneCell Membrane - Thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell (selectively permeable)ProkaryoteEukaryotePlantAnimal
21Cell WallCell Wall - Strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria that supports and shapesMade of CELLULOSEin plants,chitin,etc. depending on the organism.ProkaryoteEukaryotePlant
22NucleusNucleus – Contains DNA (genetic information) and instructions for the productions of proteins and other cellular processesBounded by the nuclear envelopeEukaryotePlantAnimal
23Nuclear EnvelopeNuclear Envelope – Layer surrounding the nucleus of a cell covered in nuclear pores, which allow material to move into and out of nucleus
24VacuolesEukaryotePlantAnimalVacuoles – Sac like structure that stores water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.Plants contain large central vacuolesAnimals contain many smaller vacuoles
25Ribosomes Ribosomes – small particles of rRNA; Where proteins are assembledFound throughout the cytoplasm and on the rough ER.Are small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasmProkaryoteEukaryotePlantAnimal
26Endoplasmic Reticulum Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - Internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modifiedsystem of transport tunnels from nucleus to Golgi
27Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER- The portion of the ER involved in the synthesis of proteinsGiven this name because of the ribosomes found on its surface.Abundant in cells that produce large amounts of protein for export.EukaryotePlantAnimal
28Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER – Endoplasmic reticulum where ribosomes are not found on its surfaceInvolved in:synthesis of lipids for cellmembranesdetoxification of drugs (in liver cells)EukaryotePlantAnimal
29Golgi ApparatusGolgi Apparatus - Modify, sort, and package proteins (from the ER) into vesicles for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell.Finishing touches are put on proteins before they are ready to leave the “factory.”EukaryotePlantAnimal
30CytoskeletonEukaryotePlantAnimalCytoskeleton - Internal structure of some cells that gives shape and is involved in movementConsists ofMicrotubules- hollow and tube like; made of proteins called tubulinsMicrofilaments- thin, thread like; made of protein called actin.
31ChloroplastsChloroplasts - Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in food (photosynthesis).Like a solar power plant.Contain the green pigment chlorophyll.EukaryotePlant
32MitochondriaMitochondria - Organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food (glucose) to make energy molecules for cellsEukaryotePlantAnimal
33LysosomesLysosomes – Vesicles from a Golgi that contain digestive enzymes thatDigest/break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the cellBreak down/get rid of waste or worn out cell partsEukaryoteAnimal
34CentriolesCentrioles - Paired structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nucleus give rise to the spindle during cell division.EukaryoteAnimal
35CytoplasmProkaryoteEukaryotePlantAnimalCytoplasm – The fluid matrix that consists of water and dissolved substances such as proteins and nutrients. (cytosol)
36Cilia and Flagella Cilia are short, numerous, and hair-like Flagella are long, fewer, and tail-likeBoth are for movementProkaryoteEukaryoteAnimal
37Review: A bacteria is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell? A protist is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell?A plant is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell?DNA is found in both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. True or False
38Review: A bacteria is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell? A protist is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell?A plant is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell?DNA is found in both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. True or False
39Review: A bacteria is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell? A protist is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell?A plant is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell?DNA is found in both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. True or False
40Review: A bacteria is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell? A protist is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell?A plant is a Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell?DNA is found in both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. True or False
41Review:DNA is found in both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. True or FalseThey both have DNA, except eukaryotes have it located in a membrane bound nucleus instead of thrown into the cytoplasm.