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Chapter 13 Life in the State of Texas

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1 Chapter 13 Life in the State of Texas 1851-1860
Essential Questions Why did Immigrants come to Texas and what impact did they have when they arrived? Was it the destiny of Texas to become a slave state? Could Texas have avoided joining the Confederacy?

2 Changes in Texas Many people in Texas had come in from other states
familiar with customs, money system, and languages But, Texas was still a Frontier State…challenging and exciting Frontier Line in Texas stretched from Red River to Rio Grande…known today as Interstate 35 But, Texas was experiencing rapid growth Read “In this Land of Ours” box p. 286

3 Rural Life in Texas Between , most Texans lived on farms and ranches Number of farms grew from 12,000 to 43,000 Most people had their own farm or ranches Most focused on growing food crops Corn: largest food crop Other crops: wheat, oats, sweet potatoes People didn’t make much money from food crops

4 Rural Life in Texas, cont
Cotton: main Cash Crop (crop produced for profit) Cotton was grown in Texas and shipped to northern states and Europe…made into cloth Other cash crop: sugar cane Raising livestock on (milk cows, hogs, chickens) was profitable Ranches started—raised cattle and sheep—profitable

5 The Growth of Towns In 1850, fewer than 13,000 people lived in towns. But by 1860, more than 26,000 lived in towns Towns had home, general stores, blacksmith shops, lawyer/doctor/trade shops Sheriffs, town marshals provided law enforcement Most buildings made of wood—logs or lumber No paved streets Picture on page 284 depicts life Galveston: largest town in Texas at beginning of Texas statehood (1850) Most developed port and trade center San Antonio became largest town by 1860 Many German immigrants moved to San Antonio Menger Hotel (built of stone in 1859 and tallest building in state except for Capitol in Austin) Houston became 3rd largest town due to railroads Other important towns New Braunfels—many German immigrants Marshall—center for trade Austin—state’s political center and capitol

6 The Growth of Towns, cont
Texas had 2 manufacturing facilities In Houston: made hats In Henderson: Textile Factory—made cloth Other info East Texas towns had saw mills Most towns had grist mills—corn, grains ground into meal for baking Areas where cotton was grown had cotton gins—separate hulls from seeds Areas that grew sugar cane had mills for grinding sugar

7 Transportation 1850s, most rode horseback or in wagons pulled by horses, mules, or oxen (picture page 284) On Rio Grande, shipping down river was possible Richard King and Mifflin Kenedy established shipping on steamships during Mexico War They established King Ranch in South Texas East Texas—rivers were better and small boats could travel 100 miles upriver if water was high enough

8 Transportation, con’t Many Towns served by stagecoaches
Could travel 5-8 miles/hour Carried passengers, freight, mail Famous Stagecoach: Butterfield Line—went from Mississippi to Pacific Ocean…crossed North Texas Took about 30 days to go from San Antonio to San Diego, CA…cost $200 for one-way ticket

9 Transportation, cont Railroads started building them in 1850s
By 1860, 400 miles of railroads had been built Laid out in spider-web fashion around Galveston and Houston Mainly transported products to ports and to market

10 Education Read Then and Now on page 288
President Lamar had set aside public land for education when he was President of the Republic of Texas No public education yet—most kids went to private schools set up by churches in one room school houses In 1854, TX Governor Elisha M. Pease set aside 2 million dollars for a school fund A few public schools were started A few colleges were started then

11 Education, con’t Permanent School Fund: created in 1876 to make sure that schools would always have money Today that fund is worth about $20 billion + Today schools use interest from that money to help them Elisha M. Pease Known as one of TX most successful governors Supported Permanent School Fund—still used today Cleared state’s debt Set aside money for hospitals for people with mental illnesses Set aside money for schools for people who were deaf

12 Social and Cultural Life
People liked to Race horses, hunt, fish Dance—Saturday night hoedowns Fiesta Activities—Hispanic culture Religious Celebrations—weddings, baptisms, revivals Political Election rallies Theater Groups Newspapers

13 Interesting Info Camels (page 287)
In 1856, 32 camels plus one baby camel born at sea came from Africa to Texas as a US Army experiment These 33 camels plus 41 others that came later were taken to Camp Verde (TX hill country) Very helpful in carrying supplies across dry southwest area Some even used during Civil War But the camels were stinky and had bad tempers and were too hard for army to control, so they sold them after the Civil War

14 Camels in Texas Cotton Gin
Cotton Gin

15 Grist Mill

16 The Menger Hotel

17 Elisha Pease

18 A Changing Population Many settlers coming into Texas
Population in 1850: 212,000 Population in 1860: 604,000 Many Native Texans forced out when Anglo Americans moved in Why did they come? Land Sense of adventure Political freedom Problems in homeland

19 Migration from the US Most new Texans came from southern states (Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, & Alabama) Most settlers went to areas in Texas that were like their former home have similar lifestyles

20 Cultures and Settlement in Texas 1820-1860

21 Mexican Texans 1850: estimated to be 23,000 Mexican Texans
Most lived in San Antonio area between Nueces River and Rio Grande Or they lived along Rio Grande from Big Bend to El Paso Many had successful cattle or sheep ranches Other Mexican Texans worked on these ranches Jose Antonio Navarro had successful ranch Some Tejanos concerned that Anglo American settlers were becoming more influential than Tejanos who had been there longer Juan Cortina…was concerned

22 Juan Cortina Operated ranch near Brownsville
Believe Tejanos were not being treated fairly because their land was being taken away from them Cortina fought against corrupt officials who helped take land away from Tejanos by carrying out acts of violence Became known as Cortina War See Picture/caption on page 291

23 Cortina War Cortina had about 400 supporters
Juan Cortina Cortina War Cortina had about 400 supporters Cortina was defeated by a Confederate captain: Santos Benavides Result of Cortina War: left Mexican and Anglo Texans suspicious of each other Regardless, Mexican Americans continued to have strong influence on economy, art, culture, and language of Texas

24 German Texans By 1860, more than 43,000 people born outside of US lived in Texas Germans made up largest number of immigrants Germans came for political/religious freedom economic opportunities Many Germans came to Texas as part of organized effort of Adelsverein—Society for Protection of German Immigrants in Texas

25 German Texans, cont John O. Meusebach: leader for German settlers
Brought German settlers to New Braunfels Helped settle Fredericksburg

26 German Settlers in Texas
German Settlers in Texas Boerne, TX 1890

27 Other European Immigrants
Irish: 2nd largest group of settlers in Texas English: 3rd largest group Irish: left Ireland mainly because of disease that attacked potatoes, Ireland’s main food crop. This disease caused a famine famine: severe food shortage Many Irish settled in San Patricio and Refugio

28 Other Europeans, cont Settlers also came from France
Frenchman named Henri Castro founded colony of Castroville along Medina River Other settlers came from: Poland led by Father Leopold Moczygemba settled in town of Panna Maria Czechoslovakia— settled in Central Texas led by Ernst Bergmann & Josef Lesikar Sweden, Norway, Italy, and the Netherlands

29 Henri Castro
Henri Castro Castroville

30 Native Texans Pres Lamar had forced out most Native Texans when Texas was a Republic Kiowas and Comanches still lived in West Texas His policy was called the Removal of Native Texans Removal: forcing Native Americans to move to reservations As more settlers came into Texas, they moved into Native American land = increased tensions US Army set up military posts to help keep peace Line of military posts from Ft. Worth to Eagle Pass

31 Reservations In 1854, Texas government passed a bill (law) that set land aside for reservations Brazos Reservation (close to Ft. Belknap in Young County) Set up for Tawakonis, Wacos, Tonkawas Clear Fork Reservation (on Brazos River…in Throckmorton County) Most Native Texans refused to stay within boundaries of reservations Boundaries were crossed by settlers Within a few years, most reservations were gone and Native Texans had been forced out of Texas

32 Indian Reservations

33 Wedges of Separation Secede=to withdraw formally
Read “A Real Life Story” p. 295 For newly annexed Texas meant that US problems were now Texas problems Slavery was a big problem During 1850s, several issues caused “wedges of separation” that divided the US into North and South and led to the breakup of the Union of the US Slavery States rights By 1861, ¾ of Texans voted to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy. Secede=to withdraw formally

34 Slavery in Texas Slavery had existed in Texas for many years
By 1860, the slave population was growing faster than the free population Slaves Had no property rights Had no legal rights of marriage & family Had no way to gain their freedom Slave families could be separated and sold Could not vote Had no freedoms like even the poorest Anglo American citizens had

35 Slavery


37 Slavery in Texas, cont As population of Texas grew so did number of slaves Growth of cotton industry meant more slaves were needed to work the fields Many slaves also worked on smaller farms or in trade shops By 1860, about 182,000 slaves lived in Texas (almost 1/3 of state’s population) Even though most white people in Texas didn’t own slaves, they supported the institution of slavery They claimed that slaves were needed to support the economy of the South Economy of South did depend on slaves to help produce cash crops

38 Slavery in Texas, con’t But, many Texans (including German immigrants and Tejanos) opposed slavery Thought it was morally wrong for one person to own another person In the North, economy based on industry/manufacturing and had not become dependent on slaves


40 Free African Americans in Texas
Not all African Americans were slaves About 150 free African Americans lived in Texas during time of Mexican rule…they had full legal rights They lost these legal rights when Texas became a state but many of them stayed in Texas anyway By 1860, about 350 free African Americans lived in Texas…probably more

41 Free African Americans in Texas, con’t
Most free African Americans were poor farmers but some were wealthy business owners William Goyens: owned blacksmith shop in Nacogdoches When his status as a free man was challenged, Thomas J. Rusk represented him in court Aaron Ashworth: owned farms and ranches in Zavala County Both of these men owned slaves

42 William Goyens Aaron Ashworth
Aaron Ashworth

43 Slavery in the New US Territories
Citizens of US debated over whether slaves should be allowed in new territories Compromise of 1850 decided issue for some territories (like California) But issue of slavery had to be decided for other areas US Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduced bill to open settlement in Kansas and Nebraska called the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

44 Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Had provision in it that allowed citizens in those territories to decide if they would permit slavery or not All US Senators voted on the bill Texas Senator Sam Houston voted against the bill because he thought that the Kansas-Nebraska Act would divide the Union Texas Senator Thomas J. Rusk voted for the bill The bill passed but Texans were angry with Sam Houston because he wanted to keep slavery out of those territories and Texans wanted slavery Sam Houston was not elected to the Senate again as a result of his voting against the Kansas-Nebraska Act

45 Political Parties The Know Nothing Party
Things went from bad to worse for Sam Houston. He supported the development of a new political party in Texas The Know Nothing Party Opposed immigration to US…especially Roman Catholics with German or Mexican ancestry 2 major political parties in US Democratic Party: mostly supported farmers and laborers (Most Texans) Whig Party: mostly supported business growth

46 Political Parties, cont
When Texas became a state, most Texans were Democrats Some Texans were Whigs but party never had strong influence in state When Sam Houston supported the Know Nothing Party, he did so just to oppose the Democrats in the Texas legislature But, he never officially joined the Know Nothings

47 Houston’s Race for Governor
Sam Houston resigned as state senator and returned to Texas to run for governor in 1857 He ran as an independent and not as a member of either political party He strongly believed that Southern states should not secede from Union but that Union should remain whole

48 Houston’s Race for Governor, con’t
Hardin J. Runnels was nominated by the Democratic Party in Texas to run for governor Originally from Mississippi Owned a plantation near Red River Supported state’s rights—believed that each state had right to make own decision about slavery Favored secession if needed to preserve state’s rights Houston had been gone from Texas for 10 years and had become out of touch with what the citizens of Texas really wanted Sam Houston lost the election but made immediate plans to run again in 1859 Runnels became governor in 1857

49 Governor, cont Sam Houston stayed in Texas even after he lost the governor’s election in 1857 His presence reminded Texans about who he was and his contribution to Texas’ history Problems on the frontier caused Texans to lose faith in Gov Runnels Gubernatorial Election in 1859: Sam Houston defeated Hardin Runnels As governor, Houston strongly supported the US Union but most Texans strongly supported state’s rights. Under Houston, Texas found it difficult to secede from the Union during secession crisis of before Civil War began

50 Hardin R. Runnels Sam Houston
Hardin R. Runnels Sam Houston

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