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Chapter 13 Life in the State of Texas 1851-1860 Essential Questions Why did Immigrants come to Texas and what impact did they have when they arrived? Was.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Life in the State of Texas 1851-1860 Essential Questions Why did Immigrants come to Texas and what impact did they have when they arrived? Was."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Life in the State of Texas Essential Questions Why did Immigrants come to Texas and what impact did they have when they arrived? Was it the destiny of Texas to become a slave state? Could Texas have avoided joining the Confederacy?

2 Chapter 13 Life in the State of Texas Essential Questions Why did Immigrants come to Texas and what impact did they have when they arrived? Was it the destiny of Texas to become a slave state? Could Texas have avoided joining the Confederacy?

3 Section 1 How Texans Lived The period before the Civil War was a time of growth in Texas. Although most Texans still lived on farms, towns developed across the state. Small advancements in transportation and education helped unify the scattered communities.

4 Changes in Texas Many people in Texas had come in from other states –familiar with customs, money system, and languages But, Texas was still a Frontier State…challenging and exciting Frontier Line in Texas stretched from Red River to Rio Grande…known today as Interstate 35 But, Texas was experiencing rapid growth Read In this Land of Ours box p. 286

5 Rural Life in Texas Between , most Texans lived on farms and ranches Number of farms grew from 12,000 to 43,000 Most people had their own farm or ranches Most focused on growing food crops Corn: largest food crop Other crops: wheat, oats, sweet potatoes People didnt make much money from food cropshttp://soilcrop.tamu.edu/photogallery/cornsorghum+/pages/corn%20ears.htm

6 Rural Life in Texas, cont Cotton: main Cash Crop (crop produced for profit) Cotton was grown in Texas and shipped to northern states and Europe…made into cloth Other cash crop: sugar cane Raising livestock on (milk cows, hogs, chickens) was profitable Ranches startedraised cattle and sheepprofitable

7 The Growth of Towns In 1850, fewer than 13,000 people lived in towns. But by 1860, more than 26,000 lived in towns –Towns had home, general stores, blacksmith shops, lawyer/doctor/trade shops –Sheriffs, town marshals provided law enforcement –Most buildings made of woodlogs or lumber –No paved streets –Picture on page 284 depicts life Galveston: largest town in Texas at beginning of Texas statehood (1850) –Most developed port and trade center San Antonio became largest town by 1860 –Many German immigrants moved to San Antonio –Menger Hotel (built of stone in 1859 and tallest building in state except for Capitol in Austin) Houston became 3 rd largest town due to railroads Other important towns –New Braunfelsmany German immigrants –Marshallcenter for trade –Austinstates political center and capitol

8 The Growth of Towns, cont Texas had 2 manufacturing facilities –In Houston: made hats –In Henderson: Textile Factorymade cloth Other info –East Texas towns had saw mills –Most towns had grist millscorn, grains ground into meal for baking –Areas where cotton was grown had cotton gins separate hulls from seeds –Areas that grew sugar cane had mills for grinding sugar

9 Transportation 1850s, most rode horseback or in wagons pulled by horses, mules, or oxen (picture page 284) On Rio Grande, shipping down river was possible –Richard King and Mifflin Kenedy established shipping on steamships during Mexico War –They established King Ranch in South Texas East Texasrivers were better and small boats could travel 100 miles upriver if water was high enough

10 Transportation, cont Many Towns served by stagecoaches –Could travel 5-8 miles/hour –Carried passengers, freight, mail –Famous Stagecoach: Butterfield Linewent from Mississippi to Pacific Ocean…crossed North Texas –Took about 30 days to go from San Antonio to San Diego, CA…cost $200 for one-way ticket

11 Transportation, cont Railroads –started building them in 1850s –By 1860, 400 miles of railroads had been built –Laid out in spider-web fashion around Galveston and Houston –Mainly transported products to ports and to market

12 Education Read Then and Now on page 288 President Lamar had set aside public land for education when he was President of the Republic of Texas No public education yetmost kids went to private schools set up by churches in one room school houses In 1854, TX Governor Elisha M. Pease set aside 2 million dollars for a school fund –A few public schools were started –A few colleges were started then

13 Education, cont Permanent School Fund: created in 1876 to make sure that schools would always have money –Today that fund is worth about $20 billion + –Today schools use interest from that money to help them Elisha M. Pease Known as one of TX most success governors Supported Permanent School Fundstill used today Cleared states debt Set aside money for hospitals for people with mental illnesses Set aside money for schools for people who were deaf

14 Social and Cultural Life People liked to –Race horses, hunt, fish –DanceSaturday night hoedowns –Fiesta ActivitiesHispanic culture –Religious Celebrationsweddings, baptisms, revivals –Political Election rallies –Theater Groups –Newspapers

15 Interesting Info Camels (page 287) –In 1856, 32 camels plus one baby camel born at sea came from Africa to Texas as a US Army experiment –These 33 camels plus 41 others that came later were taken to Camp Verde (TX hill country) –Very helpful in carrying supplies across dry southwest area –Some even used during Civil War –But the camels were stinky and had bad tempers and were too hard for army to control, so they sold them after the Civil War

16 Camels in Texas Cotton Gin

17 Grist Mill

18 The Menger Hotel

19 Elisha Pease gif

20 The population of Texas continued to grow during the 1840s and 1850s. Settlers from the United States as well as Europe came to Texas in search of land and opportunity. Section 2 The Changing Face of Texas

21 A Changing Population Many settlers coming into Texas –Population in 1850: 212,000 –Population in 1860: 604,000 –Many Native Texans forced out when Anglo Americans moved in –Why did they come? Land Sense of adventure Political freedom Problems in homeland

22 Migration from the US Most new Texans came from southern states (Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, & Alabama) Most settlers went to areas in Texas that were like their former home –have similar lifestyles

23 Cultures and Settlement in Texas

24 Mexican Texans 1850: estimated to be 23,000 Mexican Texans –Most lived in San Antonio area between Neuces River and Rio Grande – Or they lived along Rio Grande from Big Bend to El Paso –Many had successful cattle or sheep ranches Other Mexican Texans worked on these ranches Jose Antonio Navarro had successful ranch –Some Tejanos concerned that Anglo American settlers were becoming more influential than Tejanos who had been there longer Juan Cortina…was concerned

25 Juan Cortina Operated ranch near Brownsville Believe Tejanos were not being treated fairly because their land was being taken away from them Cortina fought against corrupt officials who helped take land away from Tejanos by carrying out acts of violence –Became known as Cortina War See Picture/caption on page 291

26 Cortina War Cortina had about 400 supporters Cortina was defeated by a Confederate captain: Santos Benavides Result of Cortina War: left Mexican and Anglo Texans suspicious of each other Regardless, Mexican Americans continued to have strong influence on economy, art, culture, and language of Texas Juan Cortina

27 German Texans By 1860, more than 43,000 people born outside of US lived in Texas Germans made up largest number of immigrants Germans came for –political/religious freedom –economic opportunities Many Germans came to Texas as part of organized effort of AdelsvereinSociety for Protection of German Immigrants in Texas

28 German Texans, cont John O. Meusebach: leader for German settlers Brought German settlers to New Braunfels Helped settle Fredericksburg

29 German Settlers in Texas Boerne, TX 1890

30 Other European Immigrants Irish: 2 nd largest group of settlers in Texas English: 3 rd largest group Irish: –left Ireland mainly because of disease that attacked potatoes, Irelands main food crop. This disease caused a famine famine: severe food shortage Many Irish settled in San Patricio and Refugio

31 Other Europeans, cont Settlers also came from France –Frenchman named Henri Castro founded colony of Castroville along Medina River Other settlers came from: –Poland led by Father Leopold Moczygemba settled in town of Panna Maria –Czechoslovakia settled in Central Texas led by Ernst Bergmann & Josef Lesikar –Sweden, Norway, Italy, and the Netherlands

32 Henri Castro Castroville

33 Native Texans Pres Lamar had forced out most Native Texans when Texas was a Republic –Kiowas and Comanches still lived in West Texas His policy was called the Removal of Native Texans Removal: forcing Native Americans to move to reservations As more settlers came into Texas, they moved into Native American land = increased tensions US Army set up military posts to help keep peace –Line of military posts from Ft. Worth to Eagle Pass

34 Reservations In 1854, Texas government passed a bill (law) that set land aside for reservations –Brazos Reservation (close to Ft. Belknap in Young County) Set up for Tawakonis, Wacos, Tonkawas –Clear Fork Reservation (on Brazos River…in Throckmorton County) Most Native Texans refused to stay within boundaries of reservations Boundaries were crossed by settlers Within a few years, most reservations were gone and Native Texans had been forced out of Texas

35 Indian Reservations https://www.tsl.state.tx.us/exhibits/indian/statehood/page2.html

36 During the 1850s, political issues began to divide the United States. Like the rest of the nation, Texas became involved in the dispute over slavery and states rights. Section 3 Slavery and Politics in Texas

37 Wedges of Separation Read A Real Life Story p. 295 For newly annexed Texas meant that US problems were now Texas problems Slavery was a big problem During 1850s, several issues caused wedges of separation that divided the US into North and South and led to the breakup of the Union of the US –Slavery –States rights By 1861, ¾ of Texans voted to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy. –Secede=to withdraw formally

38 Slavery in Texas Slavery had existed in Texas for many years By 1860, the slave population was growing faster than the free population Slaves –Had no property rights –Had no legal rights of marriage & family –Had no way to gain their freedom –Slave families could be separated and sold –Could not vote –Had no freedoms like even the poorest Anglo American citizens had

39 Slavery

40 Slavery in Texas, cont As population of Texas grew so did number of slaves Growth of cotton industry meant more slaves were needed to work the fields –Many slaves also worked on smaller farms or in trade shops By 1860, about 182,000 slaves lived in Texas (almost 1/3 of states population) Even though most white people in Texas didnt own slaves, they supported the institution of slavery –They claimed that slaves were needed to support the economy of the South –Economy of South did depend on slaves to help produce cash crops

41 Slavery in Texas, cont But, many Texans (including German immigrants and Tejanos) opposed slavery –Thought it was morally wrong for one person to own another person In the North, economy based on industry/manufacturing and had not become dependent on slaves

42

43 Free African Americans in Texas Not all African Americans were slaves About 150 free African Americans lived in Texas during time of Mexican rule…they had full legal rights They lost these legal rights when Texas became a state but many of them stayed in Texas anyway By 1860, about 350 free African Americans lived in Texas…probably more

44 Free African Americans in Texas, cont Most free African Americans were poor farmers but some were wealthy business owners –William Goyens: owned blacksmith shop in Nacogdoches When his status as a free man was challenged, Thomas J. Rusk represented him in court –Aaron Ashworth: owned farms and ranches in Zavala County –Both of these men owned slaves

45 William Goyens Aaron Ashworth

46 Slavery in the New US Territories Citizens of US debated over whether slaves should be allowed in new territories Compromise of 1850 decided issue for some territories (like California) But issue of slavery had to be decided for other areas US Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduced bill to open settlement in Kansas and Nebraska –called the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

47 Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Had provision in it that allowed citizens in those territories to decide if they would permit slavery or not All US Senators voted on the bill –Texas Senator Sam Houston voted against the bill because he thought that the Kansas-Nebraska Act would divide the Union –Texas Senator Thomas J. Rusk voted for the bill The bill passed but Texans were angry with Sam Houston because he wanted to keep slavery out of those territories and Texans wanted slavery –Sam Houston was not elected to the Senate again as a result of his voting against the Kansa-Nebraska Act

48 Political Parties Things went from bad to worse for Sam Houston. He supported the development of a new political party in Texas The Know Nothing Party Opposed immigration to US…especially Roman Catholics with German or Mexican ancestry 2 major political parties in US Democratic Party: mostly supported farmers and laborers ( Most Texans) Whig Party: mostly supported business growth

49 Political Parties, cont When Texas became a state, most Texans were Democrats Some Texans were Whigs but party never had strong influence in state When Sam Houston supported the Know Nothing Party, he did so just to oppose the Democrats in the Texas legislature –But, he never officially joined the Know Nothings

50 Houstons Race for Governor Sam Houston resigned as state senator and returned to Texas to run for governor in 1857 He ran as an independent and not as a member of either political party He strongly believed that Southern states should not secede from Union but that Union should remain whole

51 Houstons Race for Governor, cont Hardin J. Runnels was nominated by the Democratic Party in Texas to run for governor –Originally from Mississippi –Owned a plantation near Red River –Supported states rightsbelieved that each state had right to make own decision about slavery –Favored secession if needed to preserve states rights Houston had been gone from Texas for 10 years and had become out of touch with what the citizens of Texas really wanted Sam Houston lost the election but made immediate plans to run again in 1859 –Runnels became governor in 1859

52 Governor, cont Sam Houston stayed in Texas even after he lost the governors election in 1857 His presence reminded Texans about who he was and his contribution to Texas history Problems on the frontier caused Texans to lose faith in Gov Runnels Gubernatorial Election in 1859: Sam Houston defeated Hardin Runnels –As governor, Houston strongly supported the US Union but most Texans strongly supported states rights. Under Houston, Texas found it difficult to secede from the Union during secession crisis of before Civil War began

53 20Sam_Houston2.750.jpg Sam Houston Hardin R. Runnels


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