21. MorphologyIn American English, a number of irregular verbs have become regularised, while remaining irregular in British English:a) In many instances, it is only the voicing of the past tense morpheme -(e)d which has been changed to regularise the verb:
3Past Participle Past Participle burn burnt burned dwell dwelt dwelled British English American EnglishPresent Past or Past orPast Participle Past Participleburn burnt burneddwell dwelt dwelledlearn learnt learnedsmell smelt smelledspell spelt spelledspill spilt spilledspoil spoilt spoiled
4b) In some irregular British English verbs, there is a vowel change from /i/ in the present to /e/ in the past participle forms. The AmericanEnglish forms retain the present tense vowel in the following cases, as well as voicing the ending.
5Past Participle Past Participle British English American EnglishPresent Past or Past orPast Participle Past Participledream dreamt /dremt/ dreamed/drimd/kneel knelt /nelt/ kneeled/ni:ld/lean leant/lent/ leaned/li:nd/leap leapt/lept/ leaped/li:pt/
6c) The past participle " gotten " is not used in British English c) The past participle " gotten " is not used in British English. In American English, it was formerly restricted to being used in the sense of " obtain" or " acquire":I've gotten a new car since I last sawyou.
7We have gotten home late again. Now , however, " gotten" can be used in all meanings except for "have" in American English:We have gotten home late again.They have gotten me into trouble again.We had already gotten offthe train when it was hit.
8I have got plenty to eat.I have got the idea now.( understand )
92. DerivationalTwo verb-forming affixes which are somewhat more productive In American English than British English are:-ify: citify, humidify, uglify-ize: burglarize, decimalize,hospitalize, rubberize, slenderize
10b) Another way of forming new words is by simply changing a word’s grammatical class. Again, there is more of a tendency to form new wordsin this way in American English than in British English,e.g:
11a sky rocket to sky-rocket pressure to pressure (B.E. to pressurize) Noun Verban author to authora host to hosta room to room( I room at the house. )a sky rocket to sky-rocketpressure to pressure(B.E. topressurize)
123. Auxiliariesa) mustThe negative of epistemic " must" is " can't" in Southern BritishEnglish ( In the north-west of England, " mustn't" is used rather Ethan "can't" ):He must be in ---his TV is on.He can't be in---his car is gone.
13In American English, the most common negative of epistemic " must " is " must not ". Note that, unlike north-west British English, In American English this can’t be contracted to " mustn’t " without changing the meaning of the auxiliary to " not be allowed ":He must not be in---his car is gone.( epistemic )You mustn't be in when we arrive.( not allowed )
14However, " mustn't" can be epistemic in the past perfect: He mustn't have been in.( Even in such cases, the uncontracted form is preferred in American English.)
15b) used to:In questioning or negating sentences with the modal " used to ", British English can treat " used to " either as an auxiliary, in which case it inverts in questions and receives negation, or as a lexical verb requiring " do" for these constructions:
16Used he to go there? ( lexical verb ) He used to go there. ( auxiliary )Used he to go there? ( lexical verb )Did he use to go there ? ( auxiliary )He didn't use to go there. ( lexical verb )In American English, "used to " is treated only as a lexical verb in these constructions, and this is also becoming increasingly the case in British English.
17British only both American and British. Did he pass his exam? Context Do-substitution DeletionBritish only both Americanand British.Did he pass his exam?Yes, he did do Yes, he did.Have you cleaned the room?Yes, I have done Yes, I have.I haven't read this yet.But I will do But I will.I haven't bought one.But I may do But I mayCouldn't you do that later?Yes, we could do Yes, we could.
184. Verb Phrases1) In British English, the copular verbs " seem, act, look and sound " can be followed directly by an indefinite noun phrase. In American English, these verbs must be followed first by the preposition " like "; " seem " can also be followed by the infinitive " to be ":
19It seemed a long time. It seemed like a long time. British American/BritishIt seemed a long time It seemed like a longtime.He seems an intelligentman He seems to be anintelligent man.John acted a real fool.John acted like a realfool.
20That sounds a bad That sounds like a bad idea. idea. British American/BritishThat sounds a bad That sounds like a bad idea idea.That house looks a That house looks like anice one nice one.
212) " like ”British/American AmericanWe'd like for youto do this now.We'd like you todo this now.
223) The verb " want " can be followed directly by the adverbs " in " and "out" in American English. In British English, " want " must be followed first by an infinitive:British AmericanI wanted to come in.I wanted to be let in I wanted in.The dog wants to goout The dog wants out.
23Also " want " can be used in the sense of " need " in British English with an inanimate subject: The house wants painting.This is not possible in American English.
244) The verb " decide " can be used as a causative verb in British English: Non-Causative:He decided to go because of that.Causative:That decided him to go.
25In American English, " decide " can't be used as a causative; instead, a periphrastic phrase must be used, such as:That made him decide to go.
26“Buy” and “sell”in American English mean respectively “accept” and “cause sb. to accept”: He would not buy that idea.He is trying to sell us on linguistics.
27Doubt作为动词用在肯定句中后面通常接whether或if，而在否定句中则接that,这是英国英语的用法。在美国一般用that. I doubt that...
28Aim后面跟at是英国用法，如：He aimed at becoming a scientist.而在美国则用aim to，如：He aimed to become a doctor.
29Raise一词在英国17、18世纪可作“grow”, “breed”, “rear”解释，后在英国此用法被淘汰，而在美国此词仍然保持原来三种意义，如： In England, one grow farm or garden products, breed animals, and rears children. In America, one raises them all.
30Mainstream: Originally it means a prevailing current or direction of action or influence. Now in American English, it means “to put the students of mixed ability in one class.”
31Some educators warn that markedly handicapped children can profit more from segregated or individual education than from being mainstreamed into classrooms with other youngsters.
32Loan:These are the books loaned to children for home use.(American English)
33Swing: to follow the fashion; to be lively and up-to-date. This magazine has got to swing, like other magazines swing…(American English)
34Stag: Originally, it meant “ a social gathering of men only” in American English, for example: a stag dinner,a stag dancea stag party
35Now, “stag” can be used as a verb, meaning “to attend a mixed party unaccompanied by a girl.” to stag it.
365) There are a few verbs in British English and American English which differ in the prepositions or prepositional adverbs they collocate with:
37to battle with/against to battle to check up on to check out British Americanto battle with/against to battleto check up on to check outto fill in to fill outto meet to meet withto prevent sth to prevent frombecomingto protest at/against/over to protestto stop someone doing to stop fromto visit to visit with
38美国英语倾向于在有些动词后面加上副词或介词，以短语动词代替单根动词，如： American Britishdrown out drownsound out soundlose out loserest up rest
39American Britishmiss out on misspay off paytry out trystart up start
40American Britishconsult with consultvisit with visitmeet with meet
41He missed out on a chance to take the exam. It will pay off to revisit with the city.Alfred sounded out（试探……以了解其意图；探听某人口气） his boss about a day off from his job.
42Noun PhrasesCount versus Mass Nounsa) "lettuce " has characteristics of both a count and mass noun in British English, but it is only a mass noun in many varieties of American English.
43British American (mass only) I like lettuce I like lettuce.Count:a lettuce a head of lettucetwo lettuces two heads of lettuce
44b) "sport " is a count noun in both varieties but it can also be used as an abstract mass noun in British English:Count:Football is a sport I like. (British )Football is a sport I like. (American)Mass:John is good at sport. (British)John is good at sports. (American)
45Articlesa) When referring to events in the past, British English does not require the definite article before the phrase " next day ". This construction is more usual in written British English:
46British:Next day, the rains began.I saw him next day.American/British:The next day, the rains began.I saw him the next day.
47b) British English does not use the definite article in the phrase " in future " in the meaning " from now on ", while American does:British: In future, I'd like you to pay more attention to detail.American: In the future, I'd like you to pay more attention to detail.both: In the future, all houses will be heated by solar energy.
48c) halfBritish Americanhalf an hour a half houror half an hourhalf a dozen eggs a half dozenor half a dozenhalf a pound of a half poundcarrots or half a pound
49PrepositionsBritish Americanbehind in back ofout of out
50Differences in preposition used: a) in phrases for duration of time, British English uses " for" where American English uses "for" or "in":British/AmericanI haven't seen him for weeks.I haven't seen him for ages.American OnlyI haven't seen him in weeks.I haven't seen him in ages.
51b) British speakers use the preposition "at" for ' time when", with holiday seasons, as in : British Americanat the weekend over the weekendat Christmasover Christmason the weekend
52c) In expressing clock-time, British English uses the prep c) In expressing clock-time, British English uses the prep. "to" and "past" the hour while American English can also use " of, till and after ":British/Americantwenty to threefive past eightAmerican Onlytwenty of threetwenty till threefive after eight
53Adverbs:" immediately" and "directly" can function in British English as subordinators. In American English, they must modify a subordinator, such as after:British:Immediately we went, it began to rain.Go to his office directly you arrive.American:Immediately after we went, it began to rain.go to his office directly after you arrive.
54Vocabulary differences in meaning: a) Same Word , Different Meanings:Words British Americanhomely down to earth; ugly ( of people )domesticnervy nervous bold, full of nerve,cheekypants underpants trouserspavement footpath, sidewalk road surfaceto tick off to scold to make angry
55b) Same word, Additional meaning in one variety b) Same word, Additional meaning in one variety. Often the additional meaning is due to a metaphorical extension of the common meaning:
56Additional Meaning in American English: Word Meaning Additional Meaningin Common in American Englishbathroom room with bath room with toiletor shower only and sinkdumb mute stupidregular consistent; average(as in size)habitual, normal
57Additional Meaning in American English: Word Meaning Additional Meaningin Common in American Englishto ship to transport to transport byby ship ship,train, planeor truck, etc.
58c) Additional Meaning in British English: word Meaning Additional Meaningin Common in B.B.frontier a wild, open space border betweentwo countriesto mind to heed, obey to look after
59c) Additional Meaning in British English: word Meaning Additional Meaningin Common in B.B.smart intelligent well-groomedsurgery a medical operation an office ofany doctor
60d) Same Concept or Item, Different Word: US English Only Corresponds to B. B.emcee comperefaucet tapmuffler(on car) silencerrookie first year membersophomore second year studentwashcloth face flannel
61hire purchase installment buying nought zero queue line British English Only American Englishdynamo generatorhire purchase installment buyingnought zeroqueue linetreacle molassesspanner monkey wrench
62American British absorbent cotton cotton wool. Alumnus graduateany place anywhere.Apartment flat.
63American Britishapartment house block of flats.Attorney barrister or solicitor.Automobile motorcar.baby carriage prambaby stroller push-chair.Ballpoint biro.Ballyhoo exaggerated publicity.Bar public house.
64American BritishBarber gentlemen'shairdresser.beauty parlour ladies' hairdresser.Billboard hoarding.to blow one’s top to fly into a rage,blue movie pornographicor erotic film.Bluff cliffbobby pin hair grip
65American Britishbroil grill.to bug someone to annoy someone.Bum tramp, vagrant.to bump off to murder, assassinate.Cab taxi.call collect reverse charges.
66American Britishcan tin.Candy sweets.to case a joint to spy out the landbefore a robbery.Cat jazz musician or fan.Checkers draughts.Closet cupboard.comfort station public lavatory,convenience.