Presentation on theme: "Unit 17 British and American English 1. Morphology In American English, a number of irregular verbs have become regularised, while remaining irregular."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 17 British and American English
1. Morphology In American English, a number of irregular verbs have become regularised, while remaining irregular in British English: a) In many instances, it is only the voicing of the past tense morpheme -(e)d which has been changed to regularise the verb:
British English American English Present Past or Past or Past Participle Past Participle burn burnt burned dwell dwelt dwelled learn learnt learned smell smelt smelled spell spelt spelled spill spilt spilled spoil spoilt spoiled
b) In some irregular British English verbs, there is a vowel change from /i/ in the present to /e/ in the past participle forms. The American English forms retain the present tense vowel in the following cases, as well as voicing the ending.
British English American English Present Past or Past or Past Participle Past Participle dream dreamt /dremt/ dreamed/drimd/ kneel knelt /nelt/ kneeled/ni:ld/ lean leant/lent/ leaned/li:nd/ leap leapt/lept/ leaped/li:pt/
c) The past participle " gotten " is not used in British English. In American English, it was formerly restricted to being used in the sense of " obtain" or " acquire": I've gotten a new car since I last saw you.
Now, however, " gotten" can be used in all meanings except for "have" in American English: We have gotten home late again. They have gotten me into trouble again. We had already gotten off the train when it was hit.
I have got plenty to eat. I have got the idea now. ( understand )
2. Derivational Two verb-forming affixes which are somewhat more productive In American English than British English are: -ify: citify, humidify, uglify -ize: burglarize, decimalize, hospitalize, rubberize, slenderize
b) Another way of forming new words is by simply changing a word’s grammatical class. Again, there is more of a tendency to form new words in this way in American English than in British English,e.g:
Noun Verb an author to author a host to host a sky rocket to sky-rocket pressure to pressure (B.E. to pressurize) a room to room ( I room at the house. )
3. Auxiliaries a) must The negative of epistemic " must" is " can't" in Southern British English ( In the north-west of England, " mustn't" is used rather Ethan "can't" ): He must be in ---his TV is on. He can't be in---his car is gone.
In American English, the most common negative of epistemic " must " is " must not ". Note that, unlike north-west British English, In American English this can’t be contracted to " mustn’t " without changing the meaning of the auxiliary to " not be allowed ": He must not be in---his car is gone. ( epistemic ) You mustn't be in when we arrive. ( not allowed )
However, " mustn't" can be epistemic in the past perfect: He mustn't have been in. ( Even in such cases, the uncontracted form is preferred in American English.)
b) used to: In questioning or negating sentences with the modal " used to ", British English can treat " used to " either as an auxiliary, in which case it inverts in questions and receives negation, or as a lexical verb requiring " do" for these constructions:
He used to go there. ( auxiliary ) Used he to go there? ( lexical verb ) Did he use to go there ? ( auxiliary ) He didn't use to go there. ( lexical verb ) In American English, "used to " is treated only as a lexical verb in these constructions, and this is also becoming increasingly the case in British English.
Context Do-substitution Deletion British only both American and British. Did he pass his exam? Yes, he did do. Yes, he did. Have you cleaned the room? Yes, I have done. Yes, I have. I haven't read this yet. But I will do. But I will. I haven't bought one. But I may do. But I may Couldn't you do that later? Yes, we could do. Yes, we could.
4. Verb Phrases 1) In British English, the copular verbs " seem, act, look and sound " can be followed directly by an indefinite noun phrase. In American English, these verbs must be followed first by the preposition " like "; " seem " can also be followed by the infinitive " to be ":
British American/British It seemed a long time. It seemed like a long time. He seems an intelligent man. He seems to be an intelligent man. John acted a real fool. John acted like a real fool.
British American/British That sounds a bad That sounds like a bad idea. idea. That house looks a That house looks like a nice one.
2) " like ” British/American American We'd like you to do this now. We'd like for you to do this now.
3) The verb " want " can be followed directly by the adverbs " in " and "out" in American English. In British English, " want " must be followed first by an infinitive: British American I wanted to come in. I wanted to be let in. I wanted in. The dog wants to go out. The dog wants out.
Also " want " can be used in the sense of " need " in British English with an inanimate subject: The house wants painting. This is not possible in American English.
4) The verb " decide " can be used as a causative verb in British English: Non-Causative: He decided to go because of that. Causative: That decided him to go.
In American English, " decide " can't be used as a causative; instead, a periphrastic phrase must be used, such as: That made him decide to go.
“Buy” and “sell”in American English mean respectively “accept” and “cause sb. to accept”: He would not buy that idea. He is trying to sell us on linguistics.
Doubt 作为动词用在肯定句中后面 通常接 whether 或 if ，而在否定句 中则接 that, 这是英国英语的用法。 在美国一般用 that. I doubt that...
Aim 后面跟 at 是英国用法，如： He aimed at becoming a scientist. 而在美国则用 aim to ，如： He aimed to become a doctor.
Raise 一词在英国 17 、 18 世纪可作 “grow”, “breed”, “rear” 解释，后在 英国此用法被淘汰，而在美国此 词仍然保持原来三种意义，如： In England, one grow farm or garden products, breed animals, and rears children. In America, one raises them all.
Mainstream: Originally it means a prevailing current or direction of action or influence. Now in American English, it means “to put the students of mixed ability in one class.”
Some educators warn that markedly handicapped children can profit more from segregated or individual education than from being mainstreamed into classrooms with other youngsters.
Loan: These are the books loaned to children for home use. (American English)
Swing: to follow the fashion; to be lively and up-to-date. This magazine has got to swing, like other magazines swing… (American English)
Stag: Originally, it meant “ a social gathering of men only” in American English, for example: a stag dinner, a stag dance a stag party
Now, “stag” can be used as a verb, meaning “to attend a mixed party unaccompanied by a girl.” to stag it.
5) There are a few verbs in British English and American English which differ in the prepositions or prepositional adverbs they collocate with:
British American to battle with/against to battle to check up on to check out to fill in to fill out to meet to meet with to prevent sth. to prevent from becoming to protest at/against/over to protest to stop someone doing to stop from to visit to visit with
美国英语倾向于在有些动词后面加 上副词或介词，以短语动词代替单 根动词，如： American British drown out drown sound out sound lose out lose rest up rest
American British miss out on miss pay off pay try out try start up start
American British consult with consult visit with visit meet with meet
He missed out on a chance to take the exam. It will pay off to revisit with the city. Alfred sounded out （试探 …… 以了 解其意图；探听某人口气） his boss about a day off from his job.
Noun Phrases Count versus Mass Nouns a) "lettuce " has characteristics of both a count and mass noun in British English, but it is only a mass noun in many varieties of American English.
British American (mass only) Mass: I like lettuce. I like lettuce. Count: a lettuce a head of lettuce two lettuces two heads of lettuce
b) "sport " is a count noun in both varieties but it can also be used as an abstract mass noun in British English: Count: Football is a sport I like. (British ) Football is a sport I like. (American) Mass: John is good at sport. (British) John is good at sports. (American)
Articles a) When referring to events in the past, British English does not require the definite article before the phrase " next day ". This construction is more usual in written British English:
British: Next day, the rains began. I saw him next day. American/British: The next day, the rains began. I saw him the next day.
b) British English does not use the definite article in the phrase " in future " in the meaning " from now on ", while American does: British: In future, I'd like you to pay more attention to detail. American: In the future, I'd like you to pay more attention to detail. both: In the future, all houses will be heated by solar energy.
c) half British American half an hour a half hour or half an hour half a dozen eggs a half dozen or half a dozen half a pound of a half pound carrots or half a pound
Prepositions British American behind in back of out of out
Differences in preposition used: a) in phrases for duration of time, British English uses " for" where American English uses "for" or "in": British/American I haven't seen him for weeks. I haven't seen him for ages. American Only I haven't seen him in weeks. I haven't seen him in ages.
b) British speakers use the preposition "at" for ' time when", with holiday seasons, as in : British American at the weekend over the weekend at Christmas over Christmas on the weekend
c) In expressing clock-time, British English uses the prep. "to" and "past" the hour while American English can also use " of, till and after ": British/American twenty to three five past eight American Only twenty of three twenty till three five after eight
Adverbs: " immediately" and "directly" can function in British English as subordinators. In American English, they must modify a subordinator, such as after: British: Immediately we went, it began to rain. Go to his office directly you arrive. American: Immediately after we went, it began to rain. go to his office directly after you arrive.
Vocabulary differences in meaning: a) Same Word, Different Meanings: Words British American homely down to earth; ugly ( of people ) domestic nervy nervous bold, full of nerve, cheeky pants underpants trousers pavement footpath, sidewalk road surface to tick off to scold to make angry
b) Same word, Additional meaning in one variety. Often the additional meaning is due to a metaphorical extension of the common meaning:
Additional Meaning in American English: Word Meaning Additional Meaning in Common in American English bathroom room with bath room with toilet or shower only and sink dumb mute stupid regular consistent; average(as in size) habitual, normal
Additional Meaning in American English: Word Meaning Additional Meaning in Common in American English to ship to transport to transport by by ship ship,train, plane or truck, etc.
c) Additional Meaning in British English: word Meaning Additional Meaning in Common in B.B. frontier a wild, open space border between two countries to mind to heed, obey to look after
c) Additional Meaning in British English: word Meaning Additional Meaning in Common in B.B. smart intelligent well-groomed surgery a medical operation an office of any doctor
d) Same Concept or Item, Different Word: US English Only Corresponds to B. B. emcee compere faucet tap muffler(on car) silencer rookie first year member sophomore second year student washcloth face flannel
British English Only American English dynamo generator hire purchase installment buying nought zero queue line treacle molasses spanner monkey wrench
American British absorbent cotton cotton wool. Alumnus graduate any place anywhere. Apartment flat.
American British apartment house block of flats. Attorney barrister or solicitor. Automobile motorcar. baby carriage pram baby stroller push-chair. Ballpoint biro. Ballyhoo exaggerated publicity. Bar public house.
American British Barber gentlemen's hairdresser. beauty parlour ladies' hairdresser. Billboard hoarding. to blow one’s top to fly into a rage, blue movie pornographic or erotic film. Bluff cliff bobby pin hair grip
American British broil grill. to bug someone to annoy someone. Bum tramp, vagrant. to bump off to murder, assassinate. Cab taxi. call collect reverse charges.
American British can tin. Candy sweets. to case a joint to spy out the land before a robbery. Cat jazz musician or fan. Checkers draughts. Closet cupboard. comfort station public lavatory, convenience.
American British commercial bank clearing bank. con-man confidence trickster. Cookies sweet biscuits, small cakes. Corn maize, grain, Crackers biscuits (dry).
American British Crummy low-grade, poor quality, dirty. Cuffs turn-ups. custom-made, custom tailored made to measure. dead end cul-de-sac. dead-end street cul-de-sac. Dessert sweet. Detour diversion.