Presentation on theme: "The Colorado Army National Guard"— Presentation transcript:
1The Colorado Army National Guard History of theColorado GuardSgt. 1st Class David SchmidtJFHQ-CO Public Affairs NCOIC, Cmd. Historian
2NATIONAL GUARD: The Oldest Military Institution 1636 – First Muster (Males Obligated to serve)French Indian Wars – (Rogers Rangers)Minute Men – (Symbol of the National Guard)American Revolution (28 NG units fly battle streamers)War of 1812(Militia contributed 489,000)War with Mexico(70% militia forces, firstwar fought on foreign soil)
3Our Story Begins… Colorado becomes a Territory in 1861, a state in 1876 The largest % of Civil War battle streamers are carried by units of the Army National Guardst Colorado Military Companies form: Jefferson Rangers and Denver Guards to ensure alignment with the North as Civil War approaches and offer protection to territory from Indians.1861 – Gov. Gilpin creates “Colorado Volunteers”
4Civil War reaches Colorado! 1862 – La Glorieta Pass, NM, March 26-28Nearly 1500 (mostly Texan) Confederates invade up the Rio Grande and Sante Fe trail hoping to claim Colorado gold and silver minesBrigham Young vows to join them if they can make it to Utah and, as a team, try to claim western U.S. and California seaboard1200 Colorado Volunteers join Union forces and meet the Rebel Army head-on – mostly marching from Denver to Ft. Union (near Sante Fe) in six days (in early spring - up and over Raton Pass)Forces collide at Pigeon’s Ranch with infantry, cannon & cavalryMaj. John Chivington, “fighting parson” flanks behind Confederates, finds and destroys supply train after rappelling down cliff face and becomes hero of La Glorieta PassTexans flee back home after losing to Union forces1864 – Colo. Volunteer Cavalry fights upstart Confederate sympathizers in Missouri and Kansas
5Hostile Indians threaten Colorado March, 1864 – Companies form due to Indian threatTensions mount with ruthless slaughter of white settlers near present day Kiowa – mutilated ranchers put “on display” in July heat, downtown DenverStories abound of Indians capturing, raping and enslaving whites all over territorySept., 1864 – Indian trader meets with Territorial Gov. John Evans and Chivington at capital, tells of Indian plans to join forces with Mexican rebels in spring in ploy to take over Colorado TerritoryEvans tells Chivington to only engage hostile IndiansEvans gets no support from Washington still reeling from Civil War – he heads east to secure assistance
6Massacre at Sand CreekNovember, 1864 – 3rd Colo. Volunteer Cavalry and 600 militiamen engage Black Kettle’s peaceful camp at Sand Creek in retaliation of settler massacres and prevent spring-time rumored war.Slaughter over 150 Cheyenne & Arapahoe, nearly 100 women and children – Cavalry lose less than a dozenChivington’s troops march thru Denver as heroes with war trophies and Indian scalps hanging from saddlesCapt. Wynkoop and hundreds of others refuse to engage in Chivington’s massacre, later testify against himGov. Evans, Chivington forced to resignIndians stiffen resolve against whites, set fire to Colo. plains
7Labor Unrest – Miners Strike Labor Unrest – Miners Strike! Note: by 1884, Colorado National Guard had 984 membersColorado militia tasked with keeping order during strikes and labor disturbancesUnion vs. Non-Union workers in “wild west towns” such as dynamite incident in town of Independence by Cripple CreekNon-Union backed by Rockefellers, other wealthy families who also financed several Gov’t officials1889, 1894 – The “hard times”– Colorado City,Cripple Creek, Telluride, Trinidad– Boulder County, Berwind, Walsenberg, La Veta, Ludlow
8Miners, Militia Clash at Ludlow Conditions dangerous, pay below poverty, brutal foremenApril 20, 1914 – Striking coal miners refuse to disperse from tent city setup near Trinidad, workers trying to unionizeGunfire erupts, fire started and encampment set ablaze20 people, shot or burned including 2 women and 11 children hiding in a foxhole, found dead after 2 day-long skirmish2 militiamen killed by armed minersIn the end, the strikers failed to obtain their demands, their union did not obtain recognition, and many union workers were replaced by non-union workers.
9America Goes to War with Spain “There’ll be a hot time in the old town tonight!” 1898 – Colorado Guard federalized, helps claim Wake Island en route to Philippines. Another Colo. contingent ships to Cuba.First to enter city of Manila (“Colorado troops sure are eager for duty!”)Colorado Army National Guard’s only Medal of Honor recipient, LTC William R. Grove, fights in Luzon, 1899.The National Guard were the first American soldiers to fight in Asia and the first to meet an enemy utilizing classic guerrilla tactics – tactics to be seen again 60 years later.
10Colo. Guard called to Mexican Border National Defense Act of 1916 – Official first use of term National Guard, Punitive Expedition led by General John J. Pershing – Try to capture Pancho Villa & banditosColorado assigned to Douglas, AZ for border dutyFirst full scale use of mechanized equipment by ArmyFederalization extendeddue to impending warwith GermanyVilla never captured, killed by his own people two years later
11The War to End All Wars: WWI 1917 – All Colorado Guard units called to federal service for WWI duty, several battle streamers from France1st Colorado Infantry redesignatedas 157th Infantry Regiment, attachesto 40th ID1918 – 168th FA arrives in France1923 – 157th becomes part of the 45th ID after the warStrength of Colorado National Guard drafted into federal service was 198 Officers and 4297 Enlisted. The Expeditionary Force consisted of 43 Divisions, 40% of them NG.
12The Inter-War Years1921 to 1923 – 157th Regiment federally recognized and part of the newly formed 45th ID, wearing swatstika patch.1927 to 1929 – More coal mining troubles near Boulder, mutiny and riot at State Penitentiary at Canon City, Guard chases bank robbers and bandits across state1936 to 1937 – Southern Coloradoborder patrol and massive locust plague1939 – 193rd Tank Company formedSearch for Veterans’ Graves across the state, relocated to federal cemeteries
13Axis vs. Allies, WWII 1941 – All Colo. units mobilized 1943 – 157th (Infantry Reg.) arrives with 45th ID “Thunderbirds” in Africa, soon assigned under Gen. Patton’s 3rd ArmyBy 1944, 157th fights 511 days, and four beach landings –Sicily*, Salerno, Anzio, Munich1945 – Dachau liberated on April 29LTC Sparks sticks .45 in face of BG Linden (42nd) refusing to turn over Dachau to him and reporters. Later has to answer to Patton for charges which he tosses in trash.*The 157th took 4223 prisoners in July, 1944 on Sicily.“My orders were to smash through resistance as rapidly as possible to get to Munich.”LTC Felix Sparks, th Bn Cdr
14Post WWII Years1950 to 1955 – 199th Eng Bn , 193rd Tank Bn, 869th, 928th and 947th Med companies activated for Korean Conflict, but never serve. Selected personnel shipped to theatre, Europe and U.S.Berlin Crisis - Following units activated for manpower - no units shipped; 169th Artillery Grp, 140th Signal Bn, 122nd, 928th and 947th Medical CompaniesNo COARNG units sent to Vietnam.
15Massive Flood in Colorado Mountains 1976 – 144 civilians killed when Big Thompson River floods in Larimer County. Estes Park devastated.MP’s, Maintenance and Aviation respond to disaster.
16Desert Shield / Desert Storm 1990 to th and 1158th Trans Dets (first NG unit in country), 193rd MP Bn., 220th MP Co., 217th Med Bn., 928th and 947th Med Companies mobilize for duty in Saudi Arabia. 128th MPAD federalizes to Ft. Irwin.Over 18,500 patients, prisoners and refugees treated by COARNG Medical units in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.Over 25,000 Iraqi prisoners cycledthru EPW camps w/ COARNG MP’s
17Recent State Active Duty 1992 – Guard assists after tornado hits Limon, CO1993 – 1330 Colorado Guardmembers mobilized to support World Youth Day, visit of Pope John Paul II and 250,000 followers (21,000 heat-related injury patients treated).1997 – Air Force A-10 crash (Capt. Craig Button) near Vail. Wreckage found by Colorado Aviation pilot from HAATS.1997 – Summit of the Eight, Colorado Guard members utilized for transportation and escort duties for World Leaders (incl. President of U.S.).
18Recent State Active Duty 1997 – October Blizzard socks I-25 corridor, 310 Colorado soldiers activated for three days.1998 – Cortez manhunt, SF and AVN units assist Law Enforcement in finding three fugitives in southern Colorado and Utah.
19Recent State Active Duty 1999 – 136 COARNG soldiers assist local Law Enforcement with Columbine HS shooting, visit of Vice President. Guard members from 220th MP, 89th TC, 169th FA, and AVN respond.
20Recent State Active Duty Throughout the last decade, CONG has regularly responded to the needs of Colorado with:Search & Rescue for hunters and hikersForest Fire Suppression assistanceLivestock emergency feeding (hay drops) during blizzardsFloods & other natural disasters common to area
21Recent State Active Duty Hurricane Katrina slams into Gulf states, CONG mobilizes/convoys over 600 to assist. Led by the 169th, and consisting mostly of FA and MP soldiers (plus some AVN assets and Public Affairs augmentees), most serve nearly 4 weeks in St. Bernard parish, New Orleans.
22Recent Federal Activations Operation Maintain Democracy, 5/19th SF civil support mission in Haiti1996 – 104th PAD deploy to Germany/Bosnia1999 – 220th MP’s deploy to Hungary/Bosnia2000 – 1022nd Med (Air Amb) deploy to Bosnia
23War on Terrorism – Post 9/11 10/01 – 220th MPs and FA Soldiers from 157th draw duty as part of Operation Noble Eagle guarding Colo. airports12/01 – 193rd Space Bn stands up, gets activated01/02 – 5/19th Special Forces (Co. B) mobilized, sent to Afghanistan – followed 9 months later by rest of unit02/02 – 1/128th, most of220th and various otherCOARNG soldiersprovide homelandsecurity at WinterOlympics in SLC, Utah
24War on Terrorism – Post 9/11 12/02 – 220th MPs and C/109 Medical mobilized, sent to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom12/02 – 3650th Maintenance Co. mobilized in support of Active Duty on Fort Carson04/03 – 157th FA soldiers activated as part of homeland defense, this time providing security of Colo. Air Force Bases and sensitive areas such as Pueblo Chemical Depot10/03 – TSOD-K to Iraq12/03 – 143rd Signal Co. & 1157th FF to Iraq04/04 – 1/128th MPAD to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba08/05 – 947th Engineers, 2/135th Avn. to Iraq
25The Colorado Army National Guard QUESTIONS?QUESTIONS?