Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19.2 The War in the East After the fall of Fort Sumter…. – The North demanded that Pres. Lincoln attack the South immediately! – How convenient…"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 19.2 The War in the East After the fall of Fort Sumter…. – The North demanded that Pres. Lincoln attack the South immediately! – How convenient… July 20, 1861 – Confederate Congress to meet in Richmond, VA – Perfect time to attack the capital!
The South’s Capital Richmond, VA – Even built their own “White House”
Johnny Rebel meets the Yankees July 21, 1861 – Union army led by Gen. Irvin McDowell is on way to Richmond, Va. About 18,000 troops – Troops are just out of boot camp Confederate Army meets them half way – Led by Thomas “StoneWall” Jackson About 18,000 troops – Well trained – They meet at Bull Run Creek Near Manassas Junction, Virginia
First Battle of Bull Run Gen. McDowell leads Union army forward across the creek – Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson refuses to retreat “He just stood there like a “stonewall” – Finally the Confederates rally behind him! – By end of day Confederate army pushed Union army back – Losses » Union = 2,900 dead/wounded » Confederates = 1,980 dead/wounded
So what happens next? Pres. Lincoln realizes it’s going to be a long war – Pres. Lincoln fires Gen. McDowell Replaces him with Gen. George B. McClellan – Lincoln gives him orders to do what Gen. Irvin could not » Take Richmond, VA!!!
The South Unleashes it’s secret weapon April 1862 – Gen. McClellan moved army southeast of Richmond, VA Tried to sneak around the Confederate Army – Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee figures it out Is given orders to take his “Army of Virginia” – Go find Gen. McClellan and drive him out of Virginia!
Who is Robert E. Lee? Graduate from West Point Academy Veteran officer of Mexican American War Head officer of Army Corps of Engineers Led the federal troops against John Brown at Harper’s Ferry Was Pres. Lincoln’s 1 st choice for leader of Union Army during Civil War – “I cannot raise my hand against my birthplace” Went back home to Virginia to lead Confederate Army
Lee Finds McClellan June 1862 – Lee spends a week chasing McClellan’s army Fights him whenever he gets the chance – Called the “Seven Days’ Battles – After a week, McClellan leaves area around Richmond – Pres. Lincoln is not happy….
General #3 for the Union Pres. Lincoln fires McClellan – Orders Gen. John Pope to go back to Virginia and capture Richmond! Given 62,000 troops – Problem: Gen. Lee has a plan – Gen Lee takes Army of Virginia and splits it » Sends half with Stonewall Jackson Goal = attack Union from both sides!
The Confederacy Goes on the Move At Second Battle of Bull Run – Gen. Pope’s army is surrounded and destroyed 10,000 killed – Lee only loses 1,300 troops! – Now he can chase Gen. Pope north towards DC!
Gen. Lee moves his army into Maryland Lee wanted to get a victory in North – Destroy the spirit of the north – Get European countries to take them seriously – Let Lincoln know that Washington, DC is not safe from war. Then something goes bad…
The North finds out Lee’s Plans Union Scouts found cigars left behind by Army of Virginia – Had battle plans wrapped around the cigars Gen. McClellan uses the info to get back on Lincoln’s good side – How? Capture Lee!
The Bloodiest Day in American History Sept. 17, 1862 – Near Antietam Creek, Maryland Gen. McClellan (North) – 75,000 troops » Led by Major General Fightin’ Joe Hooker Gen. Lee (South) – 40,000 troops » Led by Stonewall Jackson – Battle lasted all day…
Cost of Antietam Over 25,000 dead – 12,000 Union troop casualties – 13,000 Confederate troop casualties Gen. Lee is forced to retreat back into Virginia – Gen. McClellan failed to follow him Claimed his men had been through enough in one day…
The South unleashes its other secret weapon Confederacy secretly built ships made of steel that could be submerged – Called ironclads Most famous = The Virginia – Goal: destroy the blockade around the Confederacy held by the U.S. Navy
The North Unleashes its secret weapon U.S. Navy had already built ironclad of their own – Called the Monitor March 9, 1862 – Monitor vs. Virginia Stalemate after 4 hours of fighting – Virginia leaves – Blockade stays in effect
The War Drags On…Review Questions Who is General Robert E Lee? What is the First Battle of Bull Run? Why is the Battle of Antietam significant? What are the Monitor and Virginia?
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