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Manual presentation Inventions and Special Historical Facts Part (2 of 9) 42 slides from year - 1 AD to 1300 © M.Y. Sharobim.

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Presentation on theme: "Manual presentation Inventions and Special Historical Facts Part (2 of 9) 42 slides from year - 1 AD to 1300 © M.Y. Sharobim."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Manual presentation Inventions and Special Historical Facts Part (2 of 9) 42 slides from year - 1 AD to 1300 © M.Y. Sharobim

3 AD stands for "Anno Domini," a Latin phrase meaning "in the year of the Lord" and referring to the years starting from Christ birth or year one until present. AD…

4 04 Death of Herod. 06 Judea becomes a Roman province. 23 Greek geographer Strabo publishes Geography, a work covering the world known to the Romans and Greeks at the time of Emperor Augustus - it is the only such book to survive from the ancient world. 26 Pontius Pilate becomes Roman procurator of Judea. 27 Probably the year that Jesus Christ was crucified

5 34 Apostle Paul begins missionary journeys. 41 ? Dioscorides writes about medicinal herbs. 43 Roman invasion of Britain. The first London bridge is a temporary pontoon bridge built by the Romans. 50 Heron of Greece invents steam power. St Paul begins missionary work in Europe. Pedanius Dioscorides writes the first pharmacology text, De Materia Medica (it became the primary source on pharmacology for the next 16 centuries)

6 54 Nero becomes last Caesar (of Caesar family) of Rome. 63 Death of St Paul in Rome. 64 Great fire of Rome. 65 First persecution of Christians in Rome. 68 Nero commits suicide. 69 Year of the four emperors (Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian) 54-69

7 70 Jerusalem destroyed by Titus. The Temple is burnt and destroyed 71 Coliseum built in Rome (finished in 80). 73 Siege of Massada. 82 According to Suetonius, the Emperor Domitian made women gladiators fight by torchlight at night. 95 Renewed persecution of Christians. 100 Jewish Christians forced to leave the Jewish fold

8 105 Chinese government servant named Ts'ai Lun invents paper, made from hemp waste, mulberry fibers, rags, and other materials. (It would take many centuries for this invention to travel west, reaching Samarkand, Central Asia, in 751 and Baghdad in 793, arriving in Europe in the 12th century.) 107 Persecution of Christians. 117 Hadrian rules Rome (till 138), establishes a postal system and codifies Roman law

9 122 Julius Caesar conquers England. Hadrian begins construction on a 117 km (73 mile) long wall between England and Scotland. (Parts of the Hadrian wall still stands.) 125 Christians persecuted. 127 Alexandrian astronomer, cartographer, and mathematician Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus) publishes Almagest, in which he catalogued 1,022 stars - the previous known number of stars being 850. His work influenced astronomy studies for 14 centuries

10 132 First seismoscope developed in China; it detected an earthquake 400 miles away. 136 Jewish revolt suppressed - dispersion of Jews. 149 Chinese dictionary of 10,000 characters produced by Hu Shin. 158 Claudius Galen writes that arteries carry blood, and explains the action of muscles and nerves. 219 Founding of the Sura Academy in Babylon

11 238 In this year there were 6 Roman Emperors: Maximin, Gordian I, Gordian II, Balbinus, Pupienus Maximus & Gordian III. 250 Greek mathematician from Alexandria, Diophantus, publishes Arithmetica, the first known algebra text, a treatise in 13 parts of which 6 survive. 271 First form of compass used in China

12 300 The church council of Elvira, Spain, prohibits intermarriage between Jews and Christians, also forbidding them to eat together. 313 Edict of Milan issues by Constantine I (Constantine the Great, the first Christian Roman emperor - he converted on his death bed in 337), allowing Christians to practice their faith in the Roman Empire

13 325 Constantine the Great introduces Sunday as a holy day in a new 7-day week. He also introduced movable (Easter) and immovable feasts (Christmas). 326 Constantine the Great and his mother Helena start a period of building churches in Palestine to mark the places considered holy to Christianity, including the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem and the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. 330 Founding of Constantinople (now Istanbul), which became the centre of Christianity

14 337 Constantine the Great converts to Christianity on his deathbed. 359 Under the leader of the Sanhedrin, the Nasi Hillel II, leader of the Sanhedrin, fix the calendar according to a standardized system of calculations (as used today). Previously, the calendar was based on eye witness of sightings of the new moon

15 390 Jerome's Latin Vulgate manuscripts published, containing all 80 books of the Scriptures (39 Old Testament, 27 New Testament, 14 Apocrypha). 395 Division of the Roman Empire, when Emperor Theodosius I dies. (His two sons appointed successors: 17- year-old Arcadius given rule over the east; 10-year-old Honorius ruling the west, but ruling from Milan instead of Rome.)

16 432 St Patrick returns to Ireland to start missionary work. 440 December 25th was not celebrated as the birth date of Christ until this year. Also see Christmas 450 Conversion of Ireland to Christianity. (Missionary work started under Bishop Palladius 431, but most Irish people credit St Patrick with their conversion to Christianity.)

17 500 Scriptures have now been translated into more than 500 languages. 521 Boëthius introduces Greek musical letter notation to the West. 529 Codification of Roman Law, Justinian's Code, in a series of books called Corpus Juris Civilis, by the Emperor of Byzantine. Many legal maxims would be based on this code, which included the clause, "The things which are common to all (and not capable of being owned) are: the air, running water, the sea and the seashores." The spelling of the word justice originates from Justinian's Code

18 537 Rule of St. Benedict Saint Benedict of Nursia, the father of Western monasticism", outlines the step for leading a devout life in what is known as the Rule of St Benedict. 542 The plague in Europe. It would last until 593, killing half the population of Europe. 556 First written account of the Loch Ness monster. 597 St Augustine of Canterbury introduces Christianity to Britain

19 601 The earliest dated English words are 'Town' and 'Priest', both recorded in the Laws of Ethelbert. 604 A Japanese prince regent writes The Seventeen Articles, the Constitution of Japan. The emphasis is on the prevention of dispute instead of the resolve of disputes as found in Western law

20 622 Mohammed, founder of Islam, initially hoped that the Jews would recognize him as their prophet but when they did not, and after he moved the centre of his movement from Mecca to Medina, he tried to drive Jewish tribes from Arabia. Start of the Muslim calendar 638 Moslem conquest of Jerusalem. Jews allowed to return. 660 Moslem Caliph Abd el Malik builds the Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem

21 691 Abd el Malik builds the Dome of the Rock over the area where the Temple of David had stood in Jerusalem. 700 climax of the Zapotec Culture 700 The concept of Zero introduced (although it might have been used by early Babylonians). Porcelain introduced. Fingerprinting in use in China as a means of identifying people. 711 Moors invaded Spain, Arab conquest of Spain. 732 The word Europe first mentioned

22 732 Battle of Tours: Charles Martel defeated an Arab army 738 Boniface begins missionary work among Germanic peoples. 748 First printed newspaper appears in Peking, China. 780 Musa al-Kwarizmi ( ) born in Baghdad. He introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals in his book Kitab al-jabr wa al-mugabalah

23 800 Coronation of Charlemagne, king of the Franks and now first Holy Roman Emperor, on Christmas day of this year. Crowned by Pope Leo III in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, he would become Charles I of France, called Charles the Great. 829 Nile frozen over (happens again in 1010). 850 Toilet paper thought to be used first in China. 861 Iceland discovered

24 869 Greek brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius develop the Cyrillic alphabet, based on the Greek alphabet of the time, for the Slavic peoples. (The Cyrillic alphabet is now used in Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian, and other languages. The original alphabet had 43 letters, but the modern languages have fewer: Bulgarian 30, Russian has 32, Serbian 30, and Ukrainian First record of an automatic instrument, an organ- building treatise called Banu Musa

25 900 Vikings discover Greenland. 960 Mieczyslaw I becomes first ruler of Poland. 969 Earliest recorded mention of playing cards, found in China. 976 The first recorded use of the zero in Europe. 982 Eric the Red establishes Viking colony in Greenland. 987 Hugh Capet is elected King of France. (The Capetian dynasty rules until 1328) 990 Musical notation systematized. 995 Anglo-Saxon (Early Roots of English Language) Translations of The New Testament Produced

26 1000 World population 300 million. Scandinavia and Hungary converted to Christianity. Leif Ericson lands in North America, calling it Vinland. Gunpowder invented in China Muslims destroy Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem The Tale of Genji, the book usually considered as the world's first novel, by Shikibu Murasaki, lady in waiting to the empress of Japan. Nile frozen over - also happened in Paper money printed in China

27 1050 Birth of the Yiddish language, formed out of the meeting between old French and old Italian dialects with admixture of Hebrew words East-West schism in Christianity, the final split separating the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic after centuries of disagreement. In this year Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other

28 1066 William the Conqueror, from Normandy in France, invades England, defeats last Saxon king, Harold II, at Battle of Hastings Construction on Cathedral in Pisa begins Pope Gregory VII attacks the problem called simony, the buying and selling of offices in the church, such as paying a large fee to be named bishop. He then decreed an end to marriage among the clergy

29 1077 Windsor Castle built Shen Kua of China writes about the magnetic compass, relief maps and the origins of fossils First modern university established in Bologna, Italy. Universities developed over centuries as "stadiums." 1095 At Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II calls for holy war to wrest Jerusalem from Muslims, launching the First Crusade the next year. Gilbert Crispin's "A Friendly Disputation" published - a series of discussions on the opposing arguments of faiths between him and a Jew from Mainz

30 1096 First Crusade begins, first of eight until Crusaders capture Jerusalem Latin Kingdom established by Crusaders, protected by Knights of St John the Hospitaller Chinese money printed in 3 colours to stop counterfeit Second Crusade led by King Louis VIII of France and Emperor Conrad III Moscow built by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky

31 1150 The temple complex of Angkor Wat built by King Suryavarman II in Kampuchea (formerly Cambodia) The world's first restaurant opens in Kaifeng, China. (It is still operating.) 1154 Arab geographer Sharif al-Idrisi maps the known world while in the service of the Norman king of Sicily, Roger II Map of Western China printed (oldest known printed map) Genghis Khan born

32 1173 Building of the Leaning Tower of Pisa begins Muslims capture Jerusalem Magnetic compass invented. The type of ore that attracted iron was known as magnesium stone because it was discovered in Magnesia in Asia Minor. The discovery of the magnet's use in determining direction was made independently in China and Europe, the latter by English theologian and natural philosopher Alexander Neckam Saladin allows Jews to return to Jerusalem - the first time they would return since the Christians took the city in

33 1189 Third Crusade starts The Louvre Museum in Paris built as a fortress Samurai, the warrior class, and Shoguns emerge as the ruling class in Japan and remained in power with little interruption until the late 19th century Buttons invented to decorate clothing. The sport polo introduced by Persians. Fourth Crusade (till 1204)

34 1202 Leonardo of Pisa publishes the Book of the Abacus explaining the Hindu-Arabic system to Europeans. The system was devised by Musa al-Kwarizmi in the 8th century. (Positional Base Notation and The Zero and The Point and Negative Numbers were not widely used until the 17th century.) 1210 The Order of Friars Minor, the Franciscans, created by Francis of Assisi Genghis Khan invades China

35 1212 The (two separate) Children's Crusades. The first, led by a French peasant boy named Steven of Cloyes, marching 30,000 boys and girls younger than 12 to Palestine. Some drowned on the voyage over or were sold as slaves; the rest died of disease or starvation. The second Children's Crusade was led by French boy Nicholas of Cologne, marching across the Alps with 20,000 mostly German kids. Most died of hunger or exhaustion. The pope encouraged the survivors to go home. Only 1 of 30,000 French and 200 of 200,000 German children survive. 1212

36 1214 Genghis Khan captures Peking The Great Charter, or Magna Carta, limiting royals power, signed and sealed by King John of England on 15 June at Runnymede, west of London near what is now Windsor. The Fourth Lateran Council recognized the doctrine of transubstantiation by which the bread and wine of the church service were seen as Christ's flesh and blood Fifth Crusade against Egypt

37 1220 First appearance of the legend of the wandering Jew in an Italian chronicle mentioning of a meeting with a wandering Jew in Armenia. The legend tells of the Jew who struck or insulted Jesus on his way to the Crucifixion and was condemned to wander the world without peace of mind until Jesus' second coming. (English chronicler Roger of Wendover mentioned the same story in The story has been told in hundreds of different settings.) 1220

38 1221 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II declare all official documents written on paper to be invalid, probably because paper was thought to be a Muslim manifestation. (The influence of wealthy landowners in cattle and sheep for parchment and vellum may have been the reason. The introduction of the printing press in the 15th century would change European attitudes toward paper.) 1221

39 1222 The body of writings known as Eddas provide the earliest and most extensive source of Germanic mythology. The Eddas are composed of the Prose, or Younger, Edda and the Poetic, or Elder, Edda. Snorri Sturluson, an Icelandic chieftain and scholar, wrote the work as a textbook for young poets to help them with the difficult meters of Icelandic poetry. 1222

40 1224 St. Thomas Aquinas, the chief theologian and philosopher of the Roman Catholic Church, born. His works included Summa Theologica, or Summary of Theology, which he left unfinished in 1273 after writing for 6 years Sixth Crusade The Inquisition begins Jerusalem falls to the Muslims Seventh Crusade University of Oxford founded

41 1250 Gun invented in China The florin gold coins created in Florence - it would become the first international currency Invention of eyeglasses, according to some sources; others date it as 1285 or Eighth (final) Crusade Marco Polo leaves Venice for China, where he would live and prosper for 17 years, returning to Venice where he died in

42 1273 Thomas Aquinas stops after 7 years of working on Summa Theologica, the basis of Catholic teaching The first mechanical clocks made The Mafia begins operating in Sicily, Italy University of Cambridge founded

43 1289 The first mention of actual glasses (spectacles) is found in a 1289 manuscript when a member of the Popozo family wrote: "I am so debilitated by age that without the glasses known as spectacles, I would no longer be able to read or write." See eyeglasses 1290 Windmill invented. Jews expelled from England. (Jews arrived in England in 1066 as financiers for the then new French king William) 1293 Marco Polo starts writing "The Travels of Marco Polo" Glassmaking starts in Italy

44 Research, Design & Presentation by Mike Y. Sharobim April – 2009 Music: Sunny light music © The End For Comments click:


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