Presentation on theme: "War, Trade, and the Plague The End of the Middle Ages 1215 Magna Carta 1453 End of the Hundred Years’ War 1271 Marco Polo and the Silk Road 1347 Bubonic."— Presentation transcript:
War, Trade, and the Plague The End of the Middle Ages 1215 Magna Carta 1453 End of the Hundred Years’ War 1271 Marco Polo and the Silk Road 1347 Bubonic Plague
Vocabulary Black Death – A deadly disease that swept rapidly through Europe. Habeas Corpus – A person’s right to be charged with a crime and go before a jury before being placed in jail. A person can’t be put in jail for no reason at all.
Vocabulary Magna Carta– A document signed by England’s King John that required the king to honor certain rights. Parliament– The lawmaking body that governs England.
The Magna Carta Most kings ruled England justly and with strength. King John however did not. – He demanded more military service – He demanded more money – He sold positions of royalty to the highest bidder. Many people were upset with the King. He lost an important battle and then a civil war broke out.
The Magna Carta Rather than be overthrown King John agreed to a set of promises. These promises were in a document called the Magna Carta – “Great Charter” The Magna Carta contained 63 clauses that mostly helped landowners but some articles would help all people.
The Magna Carta What’s In The Magna Carta? – One clause said that the king could not demand more money without the consent of the lords. – Another clauses said that no free man could be imprisoned, exiled or deprived property, except by law. This idea is called Habeas Corpus. – The most important part of this document was that it limited royal power. THE KING MUST OBEY THE LAW!
The Magna Carta The Magna Carta into the future: – This document led to the creation of a group of nobles that would advise the king. This is now known as Parliament. They run the government in Great Britain today. – Also it was decided that Judges must be free of royal control. This led to democracy. – Finally, the British created a constitution that contains many parts of the Magna Carta. The United States Constitution also contains ideas that were first a part of this document.
The Hundred Years’ War 1328 – The king of France dies with no sons or other relatives to take over the throne. Two men claim the king’s position. One man is French and the other is English. The Frenchmen obtains the position as the King of France. Charles IV dies and it is decided that Philip VI would become the next king of France.
The Hundred Years’ War The English are angry that the Frenchmen got the position as King of France. A few years later the English decide to attack. This is the start of the Hundred Years’ War! Edward III of England began the Hundred Years’ War with France.
The Hundred Years’ War The English are winning throughout most of the war. That is until Joan of Arc rallies the French and renews their will to fight! The English capture Joan of Arc but it is too late! The French drive the English out of France in 1453.
The Hundred Years’ War Results of the Hundred Years’ War: – Parliaments power grows in England as a result of this costly war. Under the Magna Carta the king must go to Parliament for approval to raise money to fight the war. – France’s king’s power grows. Nobles bond with the king while fighting. They support his efforts.
Trade Two things increased trade – – The Crusades – The End of Feudalism The Silk Road is one of the oldest and most important land routes. – 4,000 miles long – Not one single route but many routes that branch out – All routes began at the Chinese capital
Trade EuropeChina Gold, Ivory, and Precious Stones Silk, Furs, Ceramics, Jade, Bronze, Lacquer, and Iron IDEAS
Trade Travel on the Silk road was physically difficult and also there were many bandits.
Trade Marco Polo traveled the Silk Road. He was a European however, he came to live in China for 17 years. He even became friendly with the Emperor, Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan worked to unify the region. After the region was unified the Silk road was an important roadway for the empire. Communication was linked by this roadway. As a result the Mongols (This is the name given to the people living in China under Genghis Khan’s rule.) made the Silk Road safe so that they could communicate with one another.
The Plague The Plague is an aggressive sickness that spread rapidly. It is also known as the Bubonic Plague or Black Death. There were also other versions of the plague. One version spread through the air and could kill people in less than one day. Fleas infected with bacteria infest rodents (usually rats) and then move to humans. Fleas transfer the bacteria from the rat to the human. Rat and the human die from the disease but the flea lives.
The Plague Some people believe that the plague began in Central Asia in the 1320’s and then spread to China. After that they think that it followed the Silk Road and infected people along the way. Genoa, Italy was where the first cases in Europe were reported. Genoa is a seaport town. Rats would be able to get on boats and spread this disease to other towns.
The Plague Symptoms – – First symptom was usually headache, sore joints, and nausea. – Lymph nodes may swell to the size of an egg. – Fever between 101 and 105 Fahrenheit – Pulse and breathing accelerated – Black boils, which is blood collecting under the skin, appear. – Kills victims in about 4 days
The Plague People at this time didn’t know how the plague was spread. Some thought that you could get it by looking at someone. Others thought that it was God punishing the people. There was no knowledge of bacteria or proper hygiene to prevent disease.
The Plague The Effects of the Plague – 25% - 33% of the Population died (About ¼ - 1/3 of the Population) – Businesses go bankrupt – Deaths cause labor shortages – Serfs become more valuable and make more money. They raise their standard of living. The Manor System falls apart! – Trade declines and towns disappear – Construction and building projects stop – Food supply decreases and people starve
The End Of The Middle Ages King of England looses power and the people of England gain power and freedom. Population decreases throughout Europe as a result of the Black Death. Peasants become valuable with the fall of feudalism.