Presentation on theme: "1/28 Focus: 1/28 Focus: – Kings began to gain more power and centralize power during the high middle ages – England was one of the first countries in Europe."— Presentation transcript:
1/28 Focus: 1/28 Focus: – Kings began to gain more power and centralize power during the high middle ages – England was one of the first countries in Europe to develop a strong central monarchy Do Now: Do Now: – What was one characteristic of life in Western Europe during the early Middle Ages?
Middle Ages The High Middle Ages
Between 1000 & 1500 Western Europe began to emerge from the Dark Ages
Popes and Kings During the early middle ages nobles and their knights held a great deal of power Over time power shifted to kings and the Pope Powerful kings came into power in England and France
England Angles and Saxons had invaded England in the 400’s Divided into separate kingdoms – Each had their own laws and customs
England England was subject to frequent invasions from Vikings Alfred the Great – Saxon king – unites England after stopping Viking advances
England 1066 Alfred’s descendent King Edward dies without an heir 2 people claim the throne – Harold Godwinson Son of one of Edward’s advisors – William of Normandy Normandy was in France Claimed he had been promised the throne by Godwinson
Battle of Hastings Conflict breaks over who should be king William wins the battle and becomes King of England – Harold Godwinson is killed in battle Shot through the eye with in an arrow
William the Conqueror William begins to centralize power – Claims all land in England as his property Gave land to his supporters
William the Conqueror Domesday Book – A survey of people living in England, what they owned, and how much they could pay in taxes – was used to create an efficient tax system
Closure Identify one way William the conqueror established control of England. What was the purpose of the Domesday Book? Explain how the Magna Carta limited the power of the king?
1/29 Focus: 1/29 Focus: – The power of kings grew and the nature of the monarchy changed across Europe during the middle ages – In 1215, England instituted the Magna Carta, which placed limits on royal power Do Now: Do Now: – What is the importance of the Battle of Hastings?
The Magna Carta William’s descendants had begun to abuse their power King John – Had lost most of the English lands in France in a expensive war – Began to raise to taxes on nobles – Nobles were angered by his confiscation of lands and high taxes – Raised an army and forced King John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215
The Magna Carta Document which limited the power of the king – Means “Great Charter” Laid the groundwork for “democracy” in Europe Established the British Parliament
The Magna Carta Basic principles: – King could not raise taxes without the approval of a council of nobles and clergy Later became the British Parliament – King could not arrest people without cause or take property without just cause Habeas Corpus – Had to be convicted by a jury to be sent to jail – The King had to obey the law; was not above the law
France Was ruled by the Carolingian Dynasty from – Charlemagne – Kings after Charlemagne gradually lost power and control of large parts of France to nobles and the English
France The Capetian Dynasty ruled from – Expanded control of French kings over France Contributed to a conflict with England known as the 100 Years War
The Holy Roman Empire Empire grew out of part of Charlemagne’s Empire – Charlemagne had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope – Future rulers were crowned by the pope after being chosen by nobles
Power of the Popes Popes were powerful spiritual leaders but also developed political power during the Middle Ages – Popes claimed authority over rulers This often led to conflicts between Popes and kings – The investiture controversy
Power of the Popes Pope Gregory VII tried to expand the political power of the pope – The pope can be judged by no one; – The Roman church has never erred and never will err till the end of time; – The pope alone can depose and restore bishops; – He alone can call general councils and authorize canon law – He can depose emperors; – He can absolve subjects from their allegiance; – All princes should kiss his feet.
Closure Explain how the Magna Carta limited the power of the king? What legislative body in Britain developed from the council formed in the Magna Carta?