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WATER NUTRIENT : SUBSTANCE THAT PROMOTES THE GROWTH, MAINTENANCE, FUNCTION, REPRODUCTION OF A CELL OR AN ORGANISM THE PRINCIPAL NUTRIENTS OF ALL FEEDING.

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Presentation on theme: "WATER NUTRIENT : SUBSTANCE THAT PROMOTES THE GROWTH, MAINTENANCE, FUNCTION, REPRODUCTION OF A CELL OR AN ORGANISM THE PRINCIPAL NUTRIENTS OF ALL FEEDING."— Presentation transcript:

1 WATER NUTRIENT : SUBSTANCE THAT PROMOTES THE GROWTH, MAINTENANCE, FUNCTION, REPRODUCTION OF A CELL OR AN ORGANISM THE PRINCIPAL NUTRIENTS OF ALL FEEDING STUFFS ARE: WATER, ORGANIC MATTER, INORGANIC MATTER. WATER: 2/3 OF THE ANIMAL BODY SOURCES: DRINKING, FEED, METABOLIC WATER FACTORS GOVERN THE AMOUNT OF WATER THE ANIMAL NEED TO DRINK:  ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE  TYPE OF FEED (HIGH LEVEL OF PROTEIN OR MINERAL) INCREASE URINARY  TOTAL DM CONSUMPTION  PRODUCTION

2 WATER FUNCTION OF WATER IN ANIMAL BODY:  CELL RIGIDITY AND ELASTICITY  SOLVENT ACTION  HYDROLYTIC REACTIONS  IONIC AND OTHER REACTIONS  LUBRICATION  TRANSPORT  ABSORPTION OF FOOD MATERIAL FROM INTESTINE  REABSORPTION FROM KINDEY TUBULES  TRANSPORT OF VARIOUS FEEDSTUFF FROM PLACE TO PLACE  DRAINAGE AND EXCRETION OF THE END PRODUCT OF METABOLISM  MANUFACTURE OF VARIOUS SECRETION  CARRYING THE HORMONES TO THE PLACE OF ACTIVITY  RESPIRATORY FUNCTION  REFRACTIVE MEDIUM  HEAT REGULATIONS

3 MINERAL MINERAL: 3-5% BERAT TUBUH ADA 30 SAMPAI 40 JENIS MINERAL DALAM TUBUH Ca dan P: SEKITAR 75% (49% Ca, 27%P, 24% MINERAL LAIN) SEBAGIAN BESAR TERDAPAT DALAM TULANG DAN GIGI 86,0% Ca, 97,9%P, dan 86% TOTAL MINERAL TERDPT PD RANGKA

4 ESSENTIALITY OF ANY MINERAL ELEMENT IT IS PRESENT IN ALL HEALTHY TISSUE ITS CONCENTRATION IS FAIRLY CONSTANT ITS WITHDRAWAL INDUCES REPRODUCIBLY THE SAME STRUCTURAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES REGARDLESS OF THE SPECIES STUDIED ITS ADDITON EITHER PREVENTS OR REVERSES THESE ABNORMALITIES THE ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY DEFICIENCY ARE ALWAYS ACCOMPANIED BY PERTINENT, SPECIFIC BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES THESE BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES CAN BE PREVENTED OR CURED WHEN THE DEFICIENCIES ARE PREVENTED OR CURED

5 MINERAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR APPROXIMATE CONCENTRATION IN THE ANIMAL BODY ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS PROBABLY ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS MAJOR PER CENT TRACEPpmTRACE CALCIUM1.5IRON20-80FLOURINE PHOSPHORUS1.0ZINC10-50BROMINE POTASSIUM0.2COPPER1-5BARIUM SODIUM0.16MANGANESE STRONTIUM CHLORIDE0.11IODINE SULPHUR0.15COBALT MAGNESIUM0.04MOLYDEBNUM1.4 SELENIUM1.7 CHROMIUM0.08

6 ORGANIC CHELATE CHELATES THAT AID IN TRANSPORT AND TO STORE METAL IONS (Histidin, Cystine, EDTA) CHELATES ESSENTIAL IN METABOLISM ( Hb, Vit.B 12, Cytochrom) CHELATES WHICH INTERFERE WITH UTILIZATION OF ESSENTIAL CATIONS (Ca- Oxalat, Zn-phytat)

7 MINERALS ARE NECESSARY IN THE ANIMAL BODY FOR THE FOLLOWING REASON IN TISSUE GROWTH AND REPAIR FORMATION OF NEW BONE AND TISSUE FORMATION OF HAIR, HOOFS, HORN A SMALL AMOUNT IS PRESENT IN ALL SOFT TISSUE BLOOD CELL ALSO CONTAIN SMALL AMOUNT OF MINERAL ACT AS BODY REGULATORS OR AID IN THE FORMATION OF BODY REGULATORS MAINTENANCE OF PROPER OSMOTIC PRESSURE IN THE BODY FLUIDS MAINTENANCE OF NEUTRALITY OF BLOOD AND LYMPH MAINTANANCE A PROPER PHYSIOLOGICAL BALANCE IN MILK PRODUCTION

8 COMPOSITION OF FRESH BONE WATER, 45% ASH, 25% PROTEIN, 20% FAT, 10% CALSIUM, 36% PHOSPHORUS, 17% MAGNESIUM, 0.8% OTHERS, 46.2%

9 CALCIUM FUNCTIONS: BONE FORMATION INCLUDING TEETH AND GROWTH CLOTTING OF BLOOD REGULATION OF HEARTBEAT AND WORKING OF MUSCLE MAINTENANCE OF ACID BASE EQUILIBRIUM CONTROL OF IRRITABILITY OF NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM MAINTENANCE OF SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY OF CELL MEMBRANE SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: RICKETS IN YOUNG AND OSTEOMALACIA IN ADULTS MILK FEVER REDUCTION IN MILK YIELD THIN CELLED EGGS WITH POOR HATCHABILITY

10 CALCIUM FACTORS INFLUENCE TH E DEGREE OF ABSORPTION: CONCENTRATION OF CALCIUM IN THE DIET INTESTINAL pH PROTEIN IN THE DIET PRESENT OF FREE FATTY ACIDS PHYTIC ACID, IRON, and OXALATES VITAMIN D and PHARATHYROID SOURCES: LEGUMES LIKE ALFALFA BONE MEAL OYSTERSHELL DICALCIUM PHOSPATE

11 PHOSPHORUS FUNCTIONS: CONSTITUENT OF BONE AND TEETH CONSTITUENT OF HIGH ENERGY COMPOUND PHOSPHORYLATION PROCESS PHOSPHOLIPIDS ARE CONSTITUENTS OF ALL CELL MEMBRANE and ARE ACTIVE DETERMINANT OF CELLULAR PERMEABILITY DNA and RNA SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: RICKETS IN YOUNG AND OSTEOMALACIA IN ADULTS PICA STIFF JOINTS and MUSCULAR WEAKNESS LOW FERTILITY and LOW MILK PRODUCTION

12 PHOSPHORUS ABSORPTION: ACTIVE TRANSPOT INTERFIER BY Mg, Fe, Al IN CEREAL GRAIN PRESENT IN THE FORM OF PHYTATES SOURCES: CEREAL GRAIN BY-PRODUCT OIL CAKED MILK and MILK PRODUCT

13 POTASSIUM FUNCTIONS: MAINTENANCE OF ACID BASE EQUILLIBRIUM MAINTENANCE OF OSMOTIC PRESSURE NERVE TRANSMISSION HEART BEAT RELAXATION ACTIVATES CERTAIN ENZYMES NECESSARY FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN METABOLISM AID IN THE UPTAKE OF CERTAIN AMINO ACIDS BY THE CELL SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: WEAK EXTREMITIES POOR INTESTINAL TONE WITH POOR INTESTINAL DISTENSION CARDIAC WEAKNESS WEAKNESS OF THE RESPIRATORY MUSCLE PRESENT IN INTRACELLULAR FLUID

14 POTASSIUM METABOLISM: POTASSIUM IS THE CHIEF CATION OF THE INTRACELLULAR FLUID AND PLAYS VERY IMPORTANT PART ALONG WITH SODIUM, CHLORIDE, AND BICARBONATE IONS IN THE OSMOTIC REGULATION OF THE BODY FLUID DIETARY EXCESS OF POTASSIUM IS NORMALLY EXCRETED FROM THE BODY CHIEFLY IN THE URINE HIGH INTAKE INTERFERES WITH THE ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF MAGNESIUM SOURCES: POTASSIUM CONTENT OF PLANT IS GENERALLY VERY HIGH

15 SODIUM FUNCTIONS: MAINTENANCE BODY FLUID pH REGULATE BODY FLUID VOLUME NERVE TRANSMISSION MUSCLE CONTRACTION FUNCTION IN THE PERMEABILITY AND CARRIER OF THE CELL SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: GROWTH FAILURE and REDUCE THE UTILITATION OF DIGESTED AND ENERGY DEHYDRATION: DECREASES PLASMA AND BODY FLUID VOLUME VASCULAR DISTURBANCE: DECREASE CARDIAC OUTPUT, DECREASE ARTERIAL PRESSURE AND INCREASE HEMATOCRIT CORNEAL KERATINATION NERVUS DISORDER EGG PRODUCTION IS ADVERSELY AFFECTED PRESENT IN EXTRACELLULAR FLUID

16 SODIUM SOURCES: ALL ANIMAL PRODUCTS MARINE PRODUCTS COMMON SALT METABOLISM: REGULATED BY ALDOSTERON (ADRENAL CORTEX) WITH PROMOTE THE REABSORPTION OF SODIUM FROM THE KIDNEY TUBULES. IN THE ABSENCE OF ALDOSTERON, EXCRETION OF SODIUM IS INCREASED AND SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY ENSUE.

17 SULFUR SOURCES: SULFUR CONTAINING AMINO ACIDS METABOLISM: THE METABOLIC IMPORTANCE OF SOME SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS RESIDE IN THE EASY INTERCONVERTIBILITY OF DISULFIDE AND SULFHYDRYL GROUPS IN OXIDATION REDUCTION REACTIONS FUNCTIONS: COMPONENT OF SULFUR-CONTAINING AMINO ACIDS COMPONENT OF HORMONE INSULIN COMPONENT OF BIOTIN AND THIAMINE

18 MAGNESIUM FUNCTIONS: AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF BONE ACTIVATES ENZYMES LIKE PHOSPHATASE AND THE PHOSPHORYLATION REACTION INVOLVING ATP: GLUCOKINASE, PHOSPHOGLUCOKINASE, CREATINE TRANSPHOSPHORYLASE, ARGININE TRANSPHOSPHORYLASE SOURCES: GREEN FODDERS PERICARP OF CEREAL GRAIN, BRAN SEED CAKE MAGNESIUM OXIDE (50 mg)

19 MAGNESIUM SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY: TETANY REDNESS OF EXPOSED SKIN SURFACE HYPERIRITABILITY CARDIAC ARHYTHMIA MARKED VASODILATATION HYPOMAGNESEAMIC TETANY CONVULSION HYPERIRITABILITY TWITCHING OF THE FACIAL MUSCLE STAGGERING GAIT AND ULTIMATELY TETANY SLOW GROWTH  LETHARGIC

20 IRON FORMS: 65% PRESENT IN THE FORM OF HAEMOGLOBIN 4% IN THE FORM OF MYOGLOBIN 1% IN THE FORM OF VARIOUS HAEM ENZYMES 0.1% IN THE FORM OF TRANSFERIN 15% STORED IN THE FERRITIN OR HOMOSIDERIN 10-15% OTHER FORMS FUNCTIONS: TRANSPOT OF OXIGEN TO THE TISSUES MAINTENANCE OF OXIDATIVE ENZYMES SYSTEM WITHIN THE TISSUE CELLS MELANIN FORMATION

21 IRON ABSORPTION FROM GI: FEED: FERRIC IRON (Fe +++ )  STOMACH: FERROUS FORM (Fe ++ ) ABSORBED IN HE UPPER PART OF SMALL INTESTINE (DUODENUM) MUCOSAL CELL: COMBINES WITH APOFERRITIN  FERRITIN MUCOSAL FERRITIN DELIVERS FERROUS IRON TO THE PORTAL BLOOD CIRCULATION  FERRIC STATE  COMBINES WITH Βglobulin  TRANSFERRIN WHEN TOTAL QUANTITY OF IRON IN THE BODY IS MORE THAN APOFERRITIN  HOMOSIDERIN

22 IRON SOURCES: GREEN LEAVY MATERIALS MOST LEGUMINOUS PLANTS AND SEED COATS BONE MEAL, GLANDULAR MEAL, LIVER, AND MEAT MEAL DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: ANEMIA SKIN COLOR MAY BE REDDEN DECREASE GROWTH RATE

23 ZINC FORMS: FOUND IN EVERY TISSUE IN THE ANIMAL BODY TEND TO ACCUMULATE IN THE BONE RATHER THAN IN THE LIVER AS MANY OTHER TRACE ELEMENT MOST Zn IN BLOOD PRESENT IN THE ERYTHROCYTE FUNCTIONS: INTEGRAL PART OF THE ENZYME CARBONIC ANHYDRASE COMPONENT OF LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE COMPONENT OF SOME PEPTIDASE

24 ZINC SOURCES: WHEAT MIDDLINGS MOLASSES FISH MEAL, YEAST DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: RETARDED GROWTH DISORDER OF THE BONES SKIN DISEASES DISORDER OF THE FEATHER AND HAIR COAT REDUCED FEED EFFICIENCY DELAYED SEXUAL MATURITY, STERILITY, FERTILITY LOST APPETITE PARAKERATOSIS LEG ABNORMALITY IN POULT

25 COPPER FUNCTIONS: A CATALIST IN HAEMOGLOBIN FORMATION COMPONENT OF SOME OXIDASE ENZYMES LIKE TYROSINASE, ASCORBIC ACID OXIDASE, URICASE IN THE BLOOD DISTRIBUTED EQUALY BETWEEN PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTE IN ERYTHROCYTE PRESENT IN THE FORM OF ERYTHROCUPREIN IN PLASMA PRESENT IN THE FORM OF CERULOPLASMIN IN BRAIN: CEREBROCUPREIN DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: SPONTANEOUS FRACTURE OF BONE DEMYELINATION OF THE CNS PIGMENTATION AND STRUCTURE OF HAIR AND WOOL: ACHROMOTRICIA, ALOPECIA, DERMATITIS FIBROSIS OF THE MYOCARDIUM SCOURING AORTIC RUPTURE DECREASE REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITY

26 COPPER SOURCES: LIVER AND GLANDULAR MEAL CORN DISTILLERS DRIED WHEY PEANUT MEAL COTTON SEED MEAL FISH MEAL

27 MANGANESE FUNCTIONS: ACTIVATE ENZYMES: ARGINASE, CYSTEIN DESULFHYDRASE, THIAMINASE, and DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE AMINO ACID METABOLISM: ACTIVATE ENZYMES, FORMS CHELATE WITH AMINO ACID and PYRIDOXAL ACTIVATOR IN THE SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS IN VITRO DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: REDUCE GROWTH REDUCE MINERALIZATION DEFECTIVE STRUCTUR OF THE BONES CHICK: PEROSIS (SLIPPED TENDON)  TIBIOMETARSAL JOINT SYMPTOM S AGGRAVATED BY HIGH INTAKE OF Ca and P

28 MANGANESE SOURCES: WHOLE RICE (420ppm) RICEPOLISHED (18ppm) CEREAL GRAIN (MODERATE AMOUNT), EXCEPT MAIZE (LOW) MOST GREEN FEED CONTAIN ADEQUATE AMOUNT

29 COBALT FUNCTIONS: COMPONENT OF VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: ANEMIA PERNICICOLA GRADUAL WASTING OF THE ANIMAL  STRAGGLY, ROUGH WOOL IN SHEEP REDUCED OXIGEN CARRYING CAPACITY SOURCES: USSUALY ALL ANIMAL AND PLANT ORIGINS ARE SUFFICIENT IN GENERAL LEGUMES ARE RICHER SOURCES CEREAL GRAINS ARE POOR IN COBALT

30 MOLYBDENUM FUNCTIONS: COMPONENT OF XANTHINE OXIDASE AND LIVER ALDEHYDE OXIDASE ANTAGONISM BETWEEN Mo AND Cu DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: ADDITION OF Mo IN DEFICIENT Mo ANIMAL INCREASE LIVEWEIGHT GAIN SOURCES: CABBAGE1.00 LIVER & GLANDULAR MEAL1.80 SOYBEAN, WHOLE2.50 PEAS1.40 ALFALFA MEAL0.35 CEREALTRACE or NIL


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