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Updated Nov 2004 Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Chapter 3 The Biosphere Section 1 What is Ecology? (pp. 63 – 65) Section 2 Energy Flow (pp. 67 –

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Presentation on theme: "Updated Nov 2004 Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Chapter 3 The Biosphere Section 1 What is Ecology? (pp. 63 – 65) Section 2 Energy Flow (pp. 67 –"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Updated Nov 2004 Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Chapter 3 The Biosphere Section 1 What is Ecology? (pp. 63 – 65) Section 2 Energy Flow (pp. 67 – 73) Section 3 Cycles of Matter (pp. 74 – 80)

3 Updated Nov 2004 Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 What is Ecology? What different levels of organization do ecologists study? What methods are used to study ecology?

4 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Interactions and Interdependence – studies the interactions of organisms and their surroundings. Ecology – studies the interactions of organisms and their surroundings. eco – Greek word for house eco – Greek word for house Logy – Greek word for study of Logy – Greek word for study of Ernst Haeckel saw the living world as a household with each organism having a role to play Ernst Haeckel saw the living world as a household with each organism having a role to play – everywhere on Earth that life can exist Biosphere – everywhere on Earth that life can exist

5 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Levels Within Levels An ecosystem is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment. Within an ecosystem, there are several levels of organization. Your school and its grounds are similar to an ecosystem. An ecosystem is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment. Within an ecosystem, there are several levels of organization. Your school and its grounds are similar to an ecosystem. Go to Section:

6 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November What living things are found in and around your school? 1. What living things are found in and around your school? 2. What nonliving things are found in your school? 2. What nonliving things are found in your school? 3. Into what large groups are the students in your school divided? 3. Into what large groups are the students in your school divided? 4. Into what smaller groups are these large groups divided? 4. Into what smaller groups are these large groups divided? 5. Are these groups ever divided into even smaller groups? If so, what are these groups? 5. Are these groups ever divided into even smaller groups? If so, what are these groups? Go to Section:

7 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Levels of Organization Ecologists can study relationships from the level of a single cell to the whole biosphere Ecologists can study relationships from the level of a single cell to the whole biosphere Species – group that can breed and produce fertile offspring Species – group that can breed and produce fertile offspring Population – group of same species in the same area Population – group of same species in the same area Community – different populations living together in a specific area Community – different populations living together in a specific area Ecosystem – all organisms and their nonliving, or physical surroundings Ecosystem – all organisms and their nonliving, or physical surroundings Biome – group of ecosystems with same climate and dominant communities Biome – group of ecosystems with same climate and dominant communities

8 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Ecological Methods Modern ecological research involves THREE (3) basic approaches: Modern ecological research involves THREE (3) basic approaches: Observing Observing What species live here? How many are here? What species live here? How many are here? Experimenting Experimenting Use artificial environment in lab (aquaria, terrariums, etc.) Use artificial environment in lab (aquaria, terrariums, etc.) Modeling Modeling Mathematical formulas based on observations to predict long range effects Mathematical formulas based on observations to predict long range effects

9 Updated Nov 2004 Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Energy Flow Where does the energy for life processes come from? How does energy flow through living systems? How efficient is the transfer of energy among organisms in an ecosystem?

10 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Producers Sunlight is the main energy source. Sunlight is the main energy source. Less than 1% is used by organisms Less than 1% is used by organisms Autotrophs (producers) – use energy to form food Autotrophs (producers) – use energy to form food Photosynthesis – use energy from sunlight to form complex organic chemicals from simple inorganic chemicals Photosynthesis – use energy from sunlight to form complex organic chemicals from simple inorganic chemicals Chemosynthesis – use chemical energy from hydrogen sulfide or heat vents to form complex organic chemicals from simple inorganic chemicals Chemosynthesis – use chemical energy from hydrogen sulfide or heat vents to form complex organic chemicals from simple inorganic chemicals

11 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Consumers Heterotrophs (consumers) - Cannot harness energy directly; acquire it from other organisms. Heterotrophs (consumers) - Cannot harness energy directly; acquire it from other organisms. Herbivores – obtain energy by eating plants Herbivores – obtain energy by eating plants Carnivores - obtain energy by eating animals Carnivores - obtain energy by eating animals Omnivores - obtain energy by eating both Omnivores - obtain energy by eating both Detritivores - obtain energy by eating plant and animal remains (detritus) Detritivores - obtain energy by eating plant and animal remains (detritus) Decomposers – change organic matter back into inorganic matter Decomposers – change organic matter back into inorganic matter

12 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Feeding Relationships Energy flows in one direction in an ecosystem Energy flows in one direction in an ecosystem Sun  autotrophs  heterotrophs Sun  autotrophs  heterotrophs Food Chain – series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten Food Chain – series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

13 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Food Web A complex interaction of feeding relationships A complex interaction of feeding relationships Trophic Level Trophic Level step in a food chain or food web step in a food chain or food web

14 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Regents Example of Food Web

15 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Ecological Pyramids Diagrams used to show relative amounts of energy or matter at each trophic level in a food chain or food web Diagrams used to show relative amounts of energy or matter at each trophic level in a food chain or food web Energy Pyramid – only 10% of energy transfers from one level to the next! Energy Pyramid – only 10% of energy transfers from one level to the next! Biomass Pyramid – total amount of living tissue at each level Biomass Pyramid – total amount of living tissue at each level Numbers Pyramid – number of individuals at each level Numbers Pyramid – number of individuals at each level

16 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Energy Pyramids

17 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Biomass Pyramid

18 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Numbers Pyramid

19 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Regents Pyramids

20 Updated Nov 2004 Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Cycles of Matter How does matter move among the living and non living parts of an ecosystem? How are nutrients important in living systems?

21 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Recycling in the Biosphere Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems. Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems. Biogeochemical Cycles – trace how biological, geological, and chemical materials move through an ecosystem. Biogeochemical Cycles – trace how biological, geological, and chemical materials move through an ecosystem. Water Cycle Water Cycle Nutrient Cycles Nutrient Cycles Carbon Carbon Nitrogen Nitrogen Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus Cycle

22 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Water Cycle

23 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Carbon Cycle

24 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Nitrogen Cycle

25 Updated Nov 2004Created by C. Ippolito November 2004 Nutrient Limitation Primary Productivity – rate at which producers form organic matter Primary Productivity – rate at which producers form organic matter Limiting Nutrient – single nutrient or factor that is scarce or recycles very slowly Limiting Nutrient – single nutrient or factor that is scarce or recycles very slowly Algal Bloom – runoff causes large increase of a normally limited nutrient causing a burst of growth in one segment of system Algal Bloom – runoff causes large increase of a normally limited nutrient causing a burst of growth in one segment of system


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