2 Let’s take a step back. What is Ecology? Any guesses?Definition: The study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
3 Levels of Organization Organism_____________ = one individual that is made of at least one cell, requires energy, grows and develops, reproduces, and responds to it’s environment_____________ = a group of organisms that are similar enough that they can breed._____________ = groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area._____________ = assemblages of the different populations that live together in a defined area._____________ = a collection of all the organisms that live together in a particular place as well as their nonliving or physical environment._____________ = a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities.SpeciesPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiome
4 Another way to organize organisms is in an Ecological Pyramid Definition: diagram that shows the amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food web or food chain.Energy Pyramid: only 10% of the energy from one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level.How is energy transferred?
5 Energy lost at each step Energy PyramidEnergy lost at each stepEnergy Flow
6 Ecological Pyramids Continued Biomass Pyramid: shows the total amount of living tissue (biotic matter) available at each trophic level.REMEMBER: Each trophic level harvests only about one tenth of the energy from the level below, it can also only support about one tenth the amount of living tissue.
8 Ecological Pyramids Continued Numbers pyramid: shows the number of species at each trophic level.
9 Energy Flow Sunlight Plants Energy flow through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).___________ is the main source of energy for life on EarthThis energy is harnessed by ___________, which are examples of autotrophsSunlightPlantsAutotrophs (Producers)Grass, Sunflowers, Wildflowers, SagePrairie EcosystemAll energy comes from the sun
10 Energy Flow Step 1 = Autotrophs What does autotroph mean?Make food for selfAlso known as producersPlants are the most familiar autotrophsLesser known autotrophs use chemical energy to make carbohydratesEx. bacteria
11 Energy Flow Step 2 = Heterotrophs Also known as consumersWhat does heterotroph mean?Rely on other organisms for their energy and foodHeterotrophs (Consumers)Prairie EcosystemAll energy comes from the sunAutotrophs (Producers)Grass, Sunflowers, Wildflowers, Sage
12 Different Categories of Heterotrophs Herbivores_________ obtain energy by eating plants_________ eat animals for energy_________ get energy from both plants and animals_________ feed on the remains of plants, animals and other dead matter for energyCarnivoresOmnivoresDetritovores
13 Another Way to Categorize Heterotrophs Primary Consumers = eat autotrophsSecondary Consumers = eat primary consumersTertiary Consumers = secondary consumersScavengers = eat dead thingsDecomposers = break down dead organic matter and release minerals back to soilLet’s add these to our Energy Pyramid…
14 Bacteria, Fungus, Insects DecomposersBacteria, Fungus, InsectsScavengersEagle, CoyoteSecondary ConsumersHawk, Badger, Eagle, RattlesnakePrimary ConsumersPrairie Dog, Bison, MiceAutotrophs (Producers)Grass, Sunflowers, Wildflowers, SagePrairie EcosystemAll energy comes from the sun
15 Trophic Relationships What does tropic mean?Eating/feedingFood Chains are a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten.Food webs show the complex interactions within an ecosystem.Each step in a food chain or web is called a trophic level. Producers make up the first step, consumers make up the higher levels.
17 Cycles of MatterUnlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.These cycles are the Water cycle, Nutrient Cycle, Carbon Cycle, Nitrogen cycle and Phosphorus cycle.These are ___________ resources (cannot be created or destroyed)NON-RENEWABLE