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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive…

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1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive…
12-Apr-17 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India © 2006, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

2 OC-SBT/SBI/SGS032-U01-05 Introduction
12-Apr-17 OC-SBT/SBI/SGS032-U01-05 Introduction Programmes and Courses SEP – SBT032 – Unit 01 SEP – SBI032 – Unit 01 SEP – SGS032 – Unit 01 © 2006, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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12-Apr-17 Credits Academic Inputs by Mrs. Rasika Bhore (Microbiology) © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. © 2006, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

4 How to Use This Resource
12-Apr-17 How to Use This Resource Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling. Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes. Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student. Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam. Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course. Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. © 2006, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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12-Apr-17 Learning Objectives After studying this module, you should be able to: Discuss various branches of microbiology. Describe applications & scope of microbiology. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. © 2006, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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Introduction Microbiology is the study of microorganisms in different aspects. There are various branches of Microbiology those having great importance in running world. In all these branches microbes are used differently & the huge profit is achieved in industrial & medical areas. There are several examples across daily life such as vaccines, diseases & diagnosis, maximum plant yield, quality of foods etc. which is the output from these various fields of Microbiology. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

7 Branches of Microbiology
Medical Microbiology Industrial Microbiology Food Microbiology Agricultural Microbiology Geomicrobiology Exomicrobiology Biotechnology © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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Medical Microbiology Branch of microbiology deals with the study of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites which are of medical importance and are capable of causing diseases in human beings. This branch of medicine concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infections and communicable diseases. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

9 Sub-branches in Medical Microbiology
12-Apr-17 Sub-branches in Medical Microbiology Biomedical Scientists Biomedical scientists work in Health Protection Agency (HPA) laboratories, investigating samples of body tissue and fluids to diagnose disease, monitor treatments or track disease outbreaks. Work in National Blood Service, pharmaceutical industry, university, Medical Research Council (MRC) and forensic labs. Long-term career prospects include laboratory management, research and teaching. Clinical Scientists Clinical Scientists work in diagnostic laboratories and pathology departments in large hospital. In laboratory-based research. Work as Epidemiologist. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. © 2006, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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Scope in Industry Graduates with qualifications in biomedical sciences or medical microbiology work in the pharmaceutical industry at most stages of the drug development process. Work may be based in the R&D laboratories, at manufacturing sites or sales and marketing. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

11 Industrial Microbiology
Industrial microbiology is the application of scientific principles to the processing of materials by microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses) or plant and animal cells to create useful products or processes. Industrial microbiologists work in a diverse range of sectors including: Chemicals and pharmaceuticals Agriculture Brewing Food and drink Water purification The environment Some opportunities occur in other industries where microbial contamination may be an issue, such as biofouling in oil processing. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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Industrial Microbes To be useful in industrial microbiology, an organism must: Produce usable substances or effects. Be available in pure culture. Be genetically stable, but amenable to genetic manipulation. Produce spores or other reproductive structures to allow easy inoculation. Grow rapidly and produce product quickly in large-scale culture. Grow in such a way that the cells are easily separated from the product. Not be harmful to humans or agricultural plants and animals, etc. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

13 Applications in Industrial Microbiology
The products and processes developed by Industrial microbiologists include: Products Antibiotics/Antimicrobials Vaccines Carbohydrates Organic chemicals like alcohol Enzymes etc. Processes Oil recovery/mining Contamination control Waste and wastewater management Environmental science © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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Food Microbiology Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms which inhabit, create or contaminate food. The focus of Food Microbiology is on the detection and analysis of food borne spoilage microorganisms. Study of food micro-organisms; how we can identify and culture them, how they live, how some infect and cause disease and how we can make use of their activities. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

15 Importance of Food Microbiology
Food microbiology unites the disciplines of microbiology and food technology, facilitating advances in providing safer food for the world. Developments in food technologies and consumer demand for foods that are minimally processed, organic, have low levels of additives, or extended shelf-life create challenges to ensuring food safety. Food microbiologists address these challenges by investigating all aspects of the existence, survival and behavior of microorganisms in order to better understand their impact on the safety and stability of our food system. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

16 Agricultural Microbiology
In this branch the role of microbes in agriculture is studied from the point of view of both harm & usefulness. The study of Agricultural Microbiology gives the scientific and technological knowledge useful for sustainable plant production and for the transformation of agricultural products. The increasing request of an environmental friendly agriculture requires new application of beneficial microorganisms, which could work as tools for the conservation of soil fertility in the mainframe of agricultural productive processes. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

17 Utility of Microorganisms
Some microorganisms are used in the preparation of Biofertilizers & Biopesticides. Some plays important role in elemental cycles such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus etc. Some establish a symbiotic association with plants. Some act as decomposers which returns minerals & nutrients to soil. Agricultural Microbiologists is also concerned with many infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microbes to farm animals. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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Geomicrobiology The field of Geomicrobiology concerns the role of microbe and microbial processes in geological and geochemical processes. Geomicrobiology is an overview of how microbial life has affected Earth's environment through time. It shows how the ubiquity of microorganisms, their high chemical reactivity, and their metabolic diversity make them a significant factor controlling the chemical composition of our planet. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

19 Applications in Geomicrobiology
To study microbial diversity, and life in extreme environments, such as hot springs, high saline etc. Bioenergetics, microbial metabolic capabilities, and major biogeochemical pathways of Fe, As, U, Zn, S, and P. Chemical reactivity of the cell surface, metal absorption, and the microbial role in bioremediation. Microbiological mineral formation and fossilization. The function of microorganisms in mineral dissolution i.e. bioleaching and oxidation, and the industrial and environmental ramifications of these processes . © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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Exomicrobiology It deals with the exploration of microbial life in outer space. Researchers say, microbes living in the brilliant, colored hot springs of Yellowstone National Park use hydrogen, not sulfur, for fuel. As hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, If there is life elsewhere, it could be that hydrogen is its fuel. There is a evidence of water on Mars, and we know that on Earth, hydrogen can be produced biogenetically by photosynthesis and fermentation or non-biogenetically by water reacting with iron-bearing rock. It's possible that non-biogenic processes produce hydrogen on Mars and that some microbial life form could be using that. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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Biotechnology Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. Biotechnology has contributed towards the exploitation of biological organisms or biological processes through modern techniques, which could be profitably used in medicine, agriculture, animal husbandry and environmental cloning. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

22 Industrial Biotechnology
Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas: Health care, Crop production and agriculture, Non food uses of crops (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and Environmental uses. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

23 Biotechnology Classified as………
Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures through genomic manipulation. White biotechnology , also known as industrial biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. Designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. Use of enzymes as industrial catalysts to either produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous. Green biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. Designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environmental conditions or in the presence (or absence) of certain agricultural chemicals. Engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides. Example, Bt corn. Blue biotechnology has also been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

24 Biotechnology Applied Fields
Pharmaceutical products Gene Therapy Medicine Human Genome Project Cloning Agriculture Biological Engineering Bioremediation & Biodegradation © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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What we Learn……….. In Medical microbiology, study of disease causing pathogens carry out. The invention of antibiotics, clinical drugs takes place. Industrial microbiology deals with the huge production of various organic chemicals, antibiotics, fermented products by using microbes. In Food microbiology the food products are studies which are spoiled by microbes & precautions have to take for avoiding it. In this, also the microbes which are useful in making certain food products are studied. Agriculture microbiology is use of microbes in crop development. Microbial decomposers of various metals & the extremophiles are studied in Geomicrobiology. Exomicrobiology deals with the study of organisms out of the space. Biotechnology is the most advanced branch of microbiology, recent techniques are employed in biology at the genetic level to get a desired product. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

26 Critical Thinking Questions
12-Apr-17 Critical Thinking Questions Phosphorus is one of the important nutrient source of plants. But its percentage in Indian soil is very low, so the growth & yield of plant affects. Phosphate rocks are the major source of phosphorus. So how will you overcome this problem by using rocks & microorganisms? Under which branch of microbiology this project comes? © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. © 2006, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

27 Tips For Critical Thinking Questions
Selection of phosphate utilizing organism & symbiotic association.

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12-Apr-17 Study Tips Collect the information regarding all these branches, visit to the industries where microbiological work is carry out. So that you come to know exactly the implementation of microbes in these fields. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. © 2006, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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12-Apr-17 Study Tips Microbiology © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. © 2006, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

30 End of the Presentation
12-Apr-17 End of the Presentation Thank You ! © 2006, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.

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