Presentation on theme: "Biogeochemical Cycles"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biogeochemical Cycles What is a Biogeochemical Cycle?Only so much matter on earth because it is acts as a closed system.Energy enters as sunlight, but no matter usually exits or enters.These cycles act as a way to recycle matter within the biosphere from one form to another.
2 Energy Vs. Matter Energy is TRANSFERRED Matter is TRANSFORMED One-way flow of energy through food-chains and food webs.Energy from sun goes to plants, which then goes to consumers.Each trophic level loses ~90% of energy as heat.Only 10% of energy is used for life processes.Matter is TRANSFORMEDThis is why we have biogeochemical cycles.Only have a given amount of matter because Earth is a closed ecosystem.
3 Nutrient Cycles Carbon - key ingredient in living tissue “Carbon-based” life formsNitrogen - required for amino acids used in protein synthesisPhosphorus - required for DNA and RNA
4 Water CycleWater is required by all living things on Earth, including us.Cycles through atmosphere, ocean, and land
6 Water Cycle Major processes that bring water into the atmosphere EvapotranspirationEvaporation - water heats up, forming water vapor, which then moves into atmosphere.Transpiration - water from plant leaves evaporates.CondensationCloud formation as water vapor in atmosphere cools, condensing into the small droplets that form clouds.
7 Water Cycle Major process that brings water out of the atmosphere: PrecipitationDroplets that formed clouds become to large and are released as snow, sleet, hail, or rain.
8 Water Cycle Processes on land: Runoff Seepage (aka infiltration) Precipitation “runs” along land until it reaches a body of water, such as a lake, river, or ocean.Seepage (aka infiltration)Precipitation “seeps” (moves into) soil to form ground water below the soil’s surface.Root uptakePlants absorb ground water from soil via their roots.
10 Carbon Cycle How is carbon taken up and released? Photosynthesis, respiration, decompositionErosion, volcanic activity, and other geological activityFossil fuel formation (deposition)Human activityAll these activities transfer carbon dioxide.
11 Carbon Facts 71% of world’s carbon is in the oceans. 22% exists as fossils.3% contained in dead organic matter and phytoplankton.3% held in terrestrial ecosystems.Only 1% within the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
14 Phosphorus Cycle Where is a majority of phosphorus located? On land in rock and soil minerals.In the ocean as sediment.Small amount in living organisms, bound within organic molecules such as DNA and RNA as well as in skeletons of animals.Unlike other nutrients, it DOES NOT enter the atmosphere.
15 Phosphorus Cycle What is the major form that phosphorus is found in? Phosphate compounds (PO43-)
17 Nitrogen Cycle What form does most nitrogen exist in? Nitrogen gas in the atmosphere (N2)
18 Nitrogen Cycle How do we get to a usable form? Bacterial nitrogen fixationAtmospheric nitrogen fixationDecomposition and excretionWhat are these usable forms?Ammonia (NH3), Nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-).
19 Nitrogen Cycle What can “fix” nitrogen to a usable form? Bacteria On root nodules of legumes such as beans; convert nitrogen gas to ammonia.In soils, convert ammonia to nitrates and nitritesEnzyme necessary for this requires that no oxygen be present.
20 Nitrogen Cycle What process removes usable nitrogen? Denitrification Bacteria convert nitrates back into nitrogen gas
21 How Nutrients Effect an Ecosystem Nutrient limitationSimilar to when a person has a deficiency in a vitamin or necessary nutritional component (like iron or calcium), ecosystems can have a deficiency in a given nutrient.This nutrient is called the limiting nutrient, because it limits the primary productivity of an ecosystem.
22 How Nutrients Effect an Ecosystem What is primary productivity?The rate at which organic material is created by producers, such as plants on land or phytoplankton in the ocean.What happens when a limiting nutrient no longer becomes limiting?In the ocean, this creates an algal bloom.
24 Limiting NutrientsA limiting nutrient limits the amount of primary productivity an ecosystem is capable of…In the ocean, nitrogen is limiting.In freshwater, phosphorus is limiting.An increase in a limiting nutrient can lead to algal blooms…
25 Algal Blooms Increase in algae as a result of increased nutrient. Step 1: Algae grow and reproduce rapidly.Step 2: Algae die.Step 3: Decomposers (bacteria) in the water take up all the oxygen via respiration as they break down the dead algae.Step 4: Limited to no oxygen left for other animals in the water column.Step 5: Other animals such as fish, die due to lack of oxygen.