Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids) By – Nevin Varghese Victor Veras Dapo Adegbile."— Presentation transcript:
Macromolecules (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids) By – Nevin Varghese Victor Veras Dapo Adegbile
Carbohydrates Purpose – used by cells to provide energy Structure – Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a ratio of about 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom for every carbon atom
Lipids Purpose – Cells use lipids for energy storage, insulation, and protective coverings Structure – Made mostly of carbon, hydrogen, a small amount of oxygen and fatty acids. Also are attached with single bonds and double bonds depending on the lipid Lipids usually have 2 hydrophilic heads and 2 hydrophobic tails
Proteins Purpose – Proteins provide structure for tissues and organs. They also carry out metabolism Structure – Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. They are built from amino acids connected from peptide bonds.
Nucleic Acids Purpose – DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids that are necessary for life Structure – Made up of subunits named Nucleotides. Nucleotides consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus atoms. Nucleic acids are mainly made up of 3 groups called the Phosphate, Sugar and Nitrogenous base.
Macromolecules Carbohydrates – Monomers Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen – Ratio of about 2 hydrogen atoms & 1 oxygen atom for every carbon atom – Types Monosaccharide: simple sugar Disaccharide: two-sugar carbohydrate Polysaccharides: polymers composed of many monosaccharide subunits Lipids Carbon Hydrogen Small amounts of oxygen – Types Fats Oils Waxes Steroids
Proteins – Monomers Amino acids Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sometimes Sulfur – Types Enzymes Nucleic Acids – Monomers Nucleotides – Carbon – Hydrogen – Oxygen – Nitrogen – Phosphorous Arranged in 3 groups – Nitrogenous base – Simple sugar – Phosphate group Types – DNA » Deoxyribonucleic acid
Enzymes Protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction – Purpose Enzymes are involved in nearly all metabolic processes They speed the reactions in digestion of food – Function Has area called active site that fits the shape of the substrate When they bind, the enzyme alters its shape When they react, the enzyme changes the rate of a reaction but does not change the amount of the end product.
What foods each are found in Lipids – found in foods that have fats – Carbohydrates – 2 types of carbohydrates – sugars and starches. Foods with sugars and starches – Nucleic Acids – fruits, vegetables and meats contain nucleic acids Proteins – meats –