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 Pre-AP English II 2015. Leave enough room inside your boxes to label them.

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Presentation on theme: " Pre-AP English II 2015. Leave enough room inside your boxes to label them."— Presentation transcript:

1  Pre-AP English II 2015

2 Leave enough room inside your boxes to label them.


4  EXIGENCE – circumstances  What were the circumstances surrounding the original delivery of the speech and/or publication of the piece?  What happened or failed to happen?  Why is one compelled to speak out?  AUDIENCE – o WHO o WHO does the speaker address and why? (the intended audience/reader) If we’re analyzing a historical text, we’re talking about the original audience/reader.

5  PURPOSE – o What is the goal of the speaker/author? o Some examples of purpose might be: Support a cause Promote change Refute a theory Stimulate interest Win argument Arouse sympathy Provoke anger

6  There are 3 key ways writers can appeal to their audience:  Appeals of logic – LOGOS  Appeals of ethics – ETHOS  Appeals of emotion – PATHOS

7  ETHOS  ETHOS –This refers to the writer’s credibility and character, his/her presentation of “self.”  It’s how the writer/speaker establishes trust and respect, with his/her audience.  Ask ethical  Ask : Is the writer/speaker ethical enough to be a reliable source of information about the subject?  Is the writer/speaker believable, sincere, fair-minded?

8  LOGOS  LOGOS – The use of research, facts, statistics, expert testimony, witnesses, scientific data, etc.  Ask  Ask: Does the argument make sense?  Does it evoke a cognitive, rational response?

9  PATHOS  PATHOS – The use of words and images to evoke emotions such as fear, anger, empathy, jealousy, pity, love, etc.  Pathos may include  Pathos may include: o Language that Appeals to the Senses o A Bias or Prejudice o An Anecdote o Connotative Language o Figurative Language o Informal Language  Ask empathize  Ask: How does the speaker try to make the audience empathize with the piece? What does the piece make you feel?

10  Fiction or nonfiction?  Poetry or prose?  Spoken or written?  How is the piece put together? (the organization / order)

11  Diction – The writer/speaker’s choice of words o Why does the speaker/writer chose specific words? o Is the diction informal or formal?  Syntax – Sentence Structure o What does the sentence structure reveal about what the speaker/writer thinks/wants to emphasize?  Imagery – Language that appeals to the five senses o What sensation is the writer exploiting?  Figurative Language – Language meant to supplement or modify the literal (denotative) meaning of words: metaphor, simile, personification, oxymoron, hyperbole

12 Watch critically for the types of rhetorical appeals used to persuade the audience.


14  Images of a lonely polar bear suffering as his arctic home melts away  He makes a long journey just to thank someone for buying a Nissan.  YOU  YOU are saving the planet and the soon-to-be homeless polar bears if you buy a Nissan! Pathos


16  ETHOS – Building our trust and admiration  The Toms Company is promising us that for every pair of shoes we purchase, a pair is given to a child in need.  Here the company is establishing trust, respect, and integrity.  We admire what they are doing; ethos is a powerful tool.


18  In the year 2030:  20% of adults will be overweight  We will be more and more sedentary  60% of the world’s population will live in cities  We will spend most of time sitting or lying down  20% of us will have trouble sleeping  60% of children will be unlikely to have seen a cow  Poor dietary habits will continue to increase  THIS is what our world will be like in the year 2030, according to statistics.  BUT, the only real statistic is that 100% of statistics are made by US.  And we are going to change them.

19  How does Dale Peterson use Ethos ?  How does Dale Peterson use Pathos ?


21  How does Dale Peterson use Ethos ?  How does Dale Peterson use Pathos ?

22  Know it!  Memorize the structure.  Memorize the elements.


24  To really support an argument, you must consider the larger picture, the global picture.  We’ll refer to this type of support as GLOBAL EVIDENCE.

25  Global evidence is when you use support for your argument by discussing global impact.  The types of GLOBAL EVIDENCE are: 1. Personal 2. Political 3. Environmental 4. Moral 5. Social 6. Educational 7. Religious 8. Appearance 9. Economical 10. Civil Rights 11. Freedom 12. Health

26  Prompt: o Write an essay stating your position on which animal makes a better pet: dogs or cats.  Claim: o Dogs make better pets than cats because they have superior intelligence, they are highly trainable, and they can offer protection and safety in and out of the home.

27  Evidence to support our REASONS: 1. A dog’s superior intelligence allows him to serve valuable roles, such as search and rescue, visual guide, and bomb or drug detection. 2. Dogs have a higher social IQ and can be trained to perform tasks on command, tasks such as sit, come, stay, speak, shake, roll over, “high 5” and fetch. 3. A dog can protect the home by barking when strangers approach the home or knock on the door. A dog may also offer a sense of security when walking and jogging with their owners.

28  Our concession:  Cat lovers will argue that cats are loving and loyal pets that offer their owners more personal freedom because of a cat’s independent nature and low-maintenance lifestyle.  Our Counter-argument:  What the cat lovers fail to point out is no one really “owns” a cat. Cats, by nature, are only affectionate on their terms; they are temperamental, they do not adjust well to change, they typically hate to ride in the car, and when cat “owners” are away from home, enjoying their carefree lifestyle, their precious feline will offer no security whatsoever should an intruder come calling because she will be hiding under the bed.

29  What GLOBAL EVIDENCE can we use to support our personal opinion that dogs make better pets than cats? 1. Personal 2. Political 3. Environmental 4. Moral 5. Social 6. Educational 7. Religious 8. Appearance 9. Economical 10. Civil Rights 11. Freedom 12. Health

30  Read: Many schools require all students to perform some type of community service such as working in nursing homes, hospitals, food banks, or animal shelters.  Think: Think about how you would feel if you were required to perform a community service.  Write: Write an essay stating your position on whether students should or should not be required to perform community service. Defend your claim with several reasons. Develop those reasons with detailed supporting evidence.

31  T Chart  Your claim:  Your examples, evidence, support  Your concession  Your counter-argument  Your global evidence





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