2 Sender-Receiver Relationship Sender /Ethos = Ethics and CredibilityThe ongoing establishment of a writer’s or speaker’s authority, credibility, and believability as he/she speaks or writes. Ethos appeals to ethics and character. Ethos seeks to persuade the reader that the writer/speaker can be trusted and believed due to his/her noble character or ethical ways in which he/she is presenting ideas.Some Examples of EthosAppeal to the writer’s/speaker’s believability, qualifications, character; relevant biographical informationUse of credible sources (experts, scholars)Accurate citation of sources: gives credit where credit is dueExperience and authority: person knows the issues and has experience in the fieldAppropriate language: uses language of the disciplineAppropriate tone: knows the audience and context of situationHumility: is not arrogant
3 Message Message = Argument What is the message? Summarize the statements made in the text.Summarize the central arguments made.Explore the purpose behind each argument.Explain how effective the arguments are.What impact does each argument have on the intended audience?
4 Emotional Strategies Pathos = Emotion The use of emotion and affect to persuade. Pathos appeals to the heart and to one’s emotions. Pathos seeks to persuade the reader emotionally.Some Examples of PathosAppeal to the heart/emotionDraw from spirituality or religious traditionsStories or testimonialsPersonal anecdotes or storiesPersonal connectionsImagery and figurative language that provokes an emotional responseVisual images or words that inspire you to empathize or have compassion towards the idea/topicPowerful words, phrases, or images that stir up emotionDetails that come from subjective reporting
5 Logical Strategies Logos = Logic The use of logic, rationality, and critical reasoning to persuade. Logos appeals to the mind. Logos seeks to persuade the reader intellectually.Some Examples of LogosAppeal to the mind/intellectDraw from philosophy and logicFactsStatisticsIf, then… statementsDefinitions of termsExplanation of ideasCause and effectDetails that come from objective reportingLogical reasons and explanations
6 Language Language = Style What does the language of the text describe? How does it affect the meaning and effectiveness of the writing? Consider the language of the images as well as the words. Look at the level of formality: is there much slang or is the diction consistently proper?Look at whether the language is abstract (love, peace, belief) or concrete (stone, potato, bumblebee). Is the feeling elevated or mundane? Grandiose, pompous, fanciful or down-to-earth, drab, literal?Look at whether the sentences are short or long and how that reinforces the diction.Look at the use of repetition or the lack of it.How do these elements above combine to produce a tone and how would you describe that tone?