3LEARNING OBJECTIVESDiscuss why the SAS was so feared by the Provisional IRA during the “Troubles”List the counter terror units established by western governments to tackle terrorismDiscuss why intelligence is such a key ingredient in the fight against terrorismDiscuss how the threat of chemical and biological warfare can easily pose a threat to any democracy
4Terms to Remember Al Jazeera Emergency Provisions European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC)General Staff Reconnaissance Unit #69Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG-9)Groupment d’intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale (GIGN)Grupo Especial de Operaciones (GEO)Human intelligence (HUMINT)InterpolJoint Task Force 2 (JTF-2)Major Criminal Hijack (MCHJ)Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS)Nerve agentsSignals intelligence (SIGINT)Special Air Service Regiment (SAS)Special Boat Squadron (SBS)Vesicants
5Roles for Counter Terrorism Legislation in many countries banning membership in terror and subversive organizations.Civil liberties and rights have to sometime be temporarily suspended to facilitate law enforcement.Drastic powers in the U.K. restricting Irish terror groups required legislation to be constantly reviewed or its powers would lapse.
6Maintaining Order PIRA turned London into its battleground. Police did not respond with a vicious suspension of civil liberties as is often seen in Latin American countries.British Police acted to control the investigation and the emotion.Police were supported by both the media and the public in general.No vigilantism during the IRA campaign of the 1970s and 1980s.
7Racial Profiling Profiling for terrorist a Civil Liberties issue? Profiling issues for Police departments – race as a determining factorFailing to identify a terrorist – rather than upset someone else as a result!Jean Charles de Menezes – possible mistaken identity – cost him his life
8Repression Former Soviet Union rarely reported any terrorist attacks. Country survived on a culture of secret police and a vast network of informers in all areas of business and society.Subversion in USSR was difficult to cultivate.KGB would likely hear of any subversion and be able to respond with force in advance of any catastrophe.
9Continued…Britain resorted to “Big Brother” tactics and installed a vast network of CCTV cameras throughout the cities and motorway systems.This has led to successful investigation of terrorist incidents.July 2005 London bombers were observed on CCTV in advance of their attack and also conducting “dummy runs”
10Continued… Military responses to terrorism are problematic. In urban situations - police have the function of investigating and providing policing functions and maintaining order.Military being used as police is often a failure e.g., U.S. Marines in Somalia, British Parachute Regiment in Northern Ireland, U.S. troops in Iraq.Soldiers often use heavy handed tactics that serve little purpose other than to generate animosity toward the troops that are supposed to be protecting the populous.
11NORTHERN IRELANDTHE TROUBLESNO – GO AREASBritish Army –sweeping powersEMERGENCYPROVISIONS ACTLONDONDERRY andBELFASTSearch homes atwill for suspects
12EMERGENCY PROVISONS ACT Security forces coulddetain anyone forup to 4 hoursBetweenArmy searched250,000 homesIRA calledfor a trucein 1974from aposition ofweaknessDiscovered 5,800Weapons androunds of ammoSearch premises andhomes without awarrant
13International Legislation Since the onslaught of modern day terror attacks dating back to the late 1960s, internationally recognized conventions have been formulated and adopted.Twelve significant conventions developed over the last 60 years to address terrorism.
14INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS The Tokyo Convention1963 (Aviation Safety)Hostages Convention1979Suppression of Unlawful ActsAgainst Safety of Fixed platformsThe Hague Convention1970 (Aircraft Hijackings)Nuclear MaterialsConvention 1980Marking of Plastic ExplosivesFor the Purpose of Detection 1991Unlawful Acts of ViolenceAt AirportsThe Montreal Convention1971 (Sabotage of Aviation)The Suppression of TerroristBombingSuppression of UnlawfulActs Against the Safety ofMaritime NavigationPrevention and Punishmentof Crimes Against InternationallyProtected PersonsConvention for the Suppressionof Financing of Terrorism
15Airport Security and Passenger Screening Weak security and applications led to major failings allowing attacks to take place9-11 heralded a future of change for aviation and security.Since 9-11, airport security has undergone reviews and significant changes (e.g., private security out, Transportation Security Agency in.Homeland Security spending billions on next generation technology.
16Global Threat to Aviation 1970s–decades of the hijacker1980s decade of bombs in baggageWeak-minded attitudes to airport and aviation security allowed the events of September 11, 2001 to be planned and executed2001–suicide aircraft as a means to deploy terror attacks
17Continued…Between 1960 and hijacking was a bargaining chip often used to coerce governments to release prisoners.From 2000 the global threat is death. The terrorists are not bargaining. They want destruction and mass civil disorder.
18Airport Facilities Public places and very open by their very nature. U.S. airports allowed non-traveling public beyond the security checkpoints; this has always been seen as compromising security.Terrorists invariably attack the “soft underbelly” that is least protected.After El Al stepped up aviation security in the 1960s terrorists were left with only ground level attacks at airport facilities.
19Ground to Air Attacks Man Portable Air Defense System Ground to air missilesBelieved in existence to number half a millionRussian made SA-7 have been used in terror attacksThousands of systems have been built by France, China, Russia, and the United StatesOnly a matter of time before an attack occurs
20Passenger Profiling Necessary to determine who is travelling Use skilled practitioners – El AlSecure Flight Program matches passenger databases to Homeland Security database for terroristsTerrorist No Fly Watch list developedSPOT – Screening Passengers by Observation Technique
21European Civil Aviation Conference Terrorism is an International issue.ECAC operates with active support of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)–three main principles in aviation security:The threat of unlawful interference with civil aviation is likely to persist.ICAO Standards and Practices must take into account of widely varying provisions from180 member states.Mutual understanding to maintain high standards in the area of aviation security.
22The Media AngleThe print and electronic media and its right to know and publish incidents has been a major factor in the development of terrorism and how events are viewed globally.Restrictions need to be in place while an incident is ongoing.Media can have negative effects on countering terror.Delta Force attempted rescue at Beirut was cancelled as media had broadcast their arrival!General Schwarzkof personally conducted press briefings during the Gulf War to limit the press problems for the campaign .
23Continued… Terrorists need to send their message. This is ably done with news coverage and instant downloading to the Internet for global consumption.The attacks on 9-11 consumed a shocked world.The media showed Palestinians celebrating in the streets when the Twin Towers collapsed–different opinions.In Zimbabwe, laws restrict the media from making any negative comments or coverage of the government or its ministers.
24Al JazeeraArabic version of CNN–largest news media channel in the Middle EastFounded in 1996 and based in QatarCritics claim that it provides disproportionate coverage to various fundamentalist and extremist groupsPrograms available worldwide via satellite
25Lyons Summit 1996 Ministers agreed on framework of measures The Agreement at Lyon focused on the following main points:Adopting internal measures to prevent terrorismAccelerate research and development for detecting explosivesInvestigate groups with charitable status as a cover for terrorist fundraisingAdopt laws for the restriction and control of weapons and explosivesReview and amend current anti-terror legislationPolitical asylum issuesFacilitate the exchange of information between states
26U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1373 September 23, freeze all assetsof 27 foreign groups, individuals andentities linked to terrorOctober 26, 2001 USAPatriot Act enactedDecember 4, 2001 U.S.Freezes the assets ofThe Holy LandFoundationIn TexasOctober 5, U.S Attorney GeneralRedesignated 25 terror groups under theAnti-Terrorism and Effective DeathPenalty Act 1996October 29, Foreign TerroristTracking Task Force createdDecember 5, 2001U.S. designates39 groups as terroristOrganizations underThe Patriot ActNovember 2, 2001 U.S. designates 22 terrorist organizationsworldwideSeptember 28, 2001 call for the criminalizing the Provision of funds to terrorists and groupsNovember 7, 2001 U.S. adds62 new organizations linkedto Al BarakaatOctober 12, Executive Order13224, 39 names added to list linkingthem to terrorism
27The Patriot ActAct was the Congressional response to the 9-11 terror attacksHastily formed and like Northern Ireland legislation the Act has time limitations withinAct allows for expanded surveillanceIncreased use of material witness warrantsCritics–act is too far reaching and severely limits the rights and freedoms of U.S. citizens
28U.S. NAVAL STATION—GUANTANAMO BAY — CUBA Located on South east corner of CubaNaval Station converted into a detention facility for enemy combatants from Iraq and elsewhereHolding detainees since the Afghanistan invasion in 2002Military tribunals conducted on site
29International Policing INTERPOL–International police cooperation agencyBased in EuropeTerrorism defined by INTERPOL –“a crime characterized by violence or intimidation, usually against innocent victims in order to obtain a political or social objective”
30Gathering Intelligence Intelligence operations will change with the types of threat presented.In London, in the 1990s, the intelligence gathering on PIRA after spectacular attacks in London was transferred from the police to MI5 (British Intelligence).Thirty-nine percent of U.K. Government resources went to compiling data on terrorist groups.To keep MI5 covert there has been cooperation between MI5 and the police in order to carry out arrests.
31HUMANINT9-11– critics and the public derided the lack of intelligence capability in the U.S.Unconventional attacks on U.S. soil were obviously not a prime intelligence factor prior to 9-11Budget constraints on HUMANIT trace back to the end of the Cold War
32SIGINTA balance must be struck with signals intelligence–the use of advance technology coupled with HUMANINTHomeland Security–designed to bridge the gap and encompass all intelligence gathering operations and to insure cooperation between previously competing agencies
33Intelligence Services Britain’s MI5–staffed by civilians – not a secret police unitEstablished at the time of the Great WarHas undergone many changes over the decadesAfter 9-11 established a center of excellence for intelligence gathering and analyzing threat assessments
34Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (U.K.) Established to analyze international terror threatsEstablished in June 2003Based at Thames House, LondonSelf-standing organizationReports to the Director General of the Security Services
35CIA & FBICohesive levels of cooperation were not a reality between these groups prior to 9-11.U.S.A. Patriot Act and Intelligence Reform and Prevention of Terrorism Act were designed to facilitate intelligence sharing.Time will tell if this comes to fruition.
36Counter Terror UnitsBritain’s Special Air Service Regiment motto “Who Dares Wins”Established in WWII by eccentric Scotsman David SterlingRan ‘special operations’ behind enemy lines in North AfricaIts famed HQ is at Hereford in the west of EnglandEstablished the Counter Revolutionary Warfare Squadron to handle both domestic and international terrorism incidentsSAS rescue mission at the Iranian Embassy siege in London and itsTargeted assassination of PIRA members in Gibraltar in 1988
37British SAS RegimentA highly skilled and dedicated unit among the elite of the elite counter terror unitsTrains with Units of GIGN and GSG-9Its Navy partner is the Special Boat SquadronSAS has associate Commonwealth Units in New Zealand and Australia. The Unit in Rhodesia was disbanded when the country was granted independence.
38AustraliaTactical Assault Group and Special Air Service Regiment formed in 1956 and is Australia’s very capable response unit for terror attacks.SASR has seen action in Borneo as well as “special operations” during the Vietnam War.Has staff based at Fort Bragg and Little Creek.Offshore Installations Assault Group –seaborne response unit
39Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)Part of the original SAS that formed in WWII and was disbanded soon afterWell trained in jungle warfareRhodesian troopers fought in Malaya and became C Squadron 22 SAS (Malayan Scouts)When Black Nationalists came to power the SAS were disbanded and many fled south to South Africa.
40Republic of Ireland Army Ranger Wing –trains with the SAS 100 troopers in strengthExpert in Hostage Rescue, Search and Rescue, Close Protection Security, and Contingency Planning OperationsHas close ties to GSG-9 and French GIGN
41Spain Grupo Especial De Operaciones (GEO) Established to combat the ETA and GRAPO terrorist groupsHighly trained and effective–also trains with the GSG-9Guarda Civil–a part of Spain’s National Police–involved in counter terrorism and hostage rescue
42Persian Gulf Sultan of Oman Special Forces–COBRAS Army officers trained at Britain’s Royal Military Academy–SandhurstStrong ties with the British SASBritish SAS assisted Sultan’s forces during the Omani rebellion between 1962 and 1975After British support the Sultan vowed never to be without such a highly trained force.COBRAS based in Dhofar–they are seconded to the Oman Police
43France Groupment d’intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale (GIGN) Formed after the Munich Olympic Games attacks and the takeover of the Saudi Embassy in ParisPolice unit, not military8 months of intensive trainingBased near Paris the unit deals with terrorist and criminal incidents
44Netherlands Bijondere Bijstands Eenheid (BBE) The Netherlands Marine Corps – “The Whole World Over” is their mottoFormed from the Dutch Marine Corps–capable of responding to incidents anywhere in the worldSouth Malaccan train hijacking-1975
45Norway Forsvarets Spesialkommando (FSK, Special Defense Commando) Military unit formed in 1982Formed to protect the country’s many North Sea oil rigs from terror attacksProvides close protection to Dutch royal familyWorks closely and trains with the British SAS
46Germany Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG-9) Formed after the disaster at the Munich Olympic GamesEstablished 6 months after Munich in April 1973Split into three definable units–each with 50 members with the exception of GSG-9/1 with 100 members for counter terrorism, GSG-9/2 handles maritime counter terrorism and GSG-9/3 handles airborne issuesGSG-9 was built by the legendary Col Ulrich Wegener–group assisted Israelis at the Entebbe airport rescue
47IsraelSayeret Mat’kal also called the General Staff Reconnaissance Unit 269Formed in 1957At the forefront of every Israeli counter terrorism strategyAfter the Munich Olympics it was mandated to track down and kill those responsible
48Czech Republic Utvar Rychleho Nasazeni (URNA) – response unit Formed along the same lines as other western European counter terror unitsEstablished to protect foreign heads of state including major sporting venues and counter terror operationsConsidered a highly competent and elite unit
49Hostage Rescue UnitsHostage rescue units can be found around the world in Egypt, the Philippines, India, the United States, Canada, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and many other countries.Usually formed as part of national or state police units and sometimes military units.Renowned HRU–Delta Force–brainchild of Charles Beckwith in the 1970s
50Canada JTF-2–Canada’s Joint Task Force Responsible for counter terrorism operations–little known about this unit and has served in Afghanistan during the invasion to oust the TalibanOperates on similar lines to the British SAS
51Piracy Robbery, kidnapping, or violence committed at sea Piracy is defined under Article 101 of the U.N. Convention of the Law of the SeaInternational Maritime Agency defines three types and levels of piracy:Low Level Armed Robbery–LLARMedium-Level Armed Robbery and Assault –MLAARMajor Criminal Hijack–MCHJ
52International Code for the Security of Ships and Port Facilities Ships of more than 500 tons must have a ship security officer on international voyages.Danger areas–South China Sea and the Horn of Africa off the coast of SomaliaContainer shipping considered at riskOne percent of all containers are searched entering the United States.
53Container Security Initiative Initiative announced in the United States in January 2002Four core principles:Using intelligence and automated information to identify and target containers that pose a risk for terrorismPre-screening those containers that pose a risk at the port of DEPARTURE – before they reach the U.S.Using detection technology to quickly pre-screen containers that pose a riskUse of smarter tamper evident containers
54Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction At the end of the Cold War the world was awash in nuclear materials2004 U.N. Atomic Energy Agency350 sites in 58 countries possess highly enriched uranium (HEU)Two dozen have enough to build a nuclear bomb
55HISTORY OF CHEMICAL AGENTS GERMAN ARMY USE MUSTARDGAS IN EUROPEWORLD WAR IITALIANS USE MUSTARD GASWHEN THEY INVADEETHIOPIANORTH AFRICA1935MIDDLE EASTSOVIETS & EGYPTIANS USEMUSTARD GAS IN YEMENVIETNAM WARU.S. USED AGENT ORANGE& PURPLE DEFOLIENTGAS USED BY IRAN AND IRAQAND ALSO RUSSIANSIN AFGHANISTAN
56History of Chemical Weapons Toxins and poisons have been used in political assassination.1976–Arab Revolutionary Army–injects mercury into food products1979 –Germany–Red Brigade–400 kilos of chemical precursors seized1995–Israel–supply of coffee to a military base had been contaminated with a nerve agent
57Continued…1984–a supply of Tylenol is contaminated with Arsenic poison1994–Tokyo Aum Shinrikyo release Sarin gas into the subway system killing 12 and injuring 5,0002004–Ukraine–Viktor Yushchenko President of the Ukraine is poisoned with dioxin
60History of Biological Weapons 1346–Tartar Army–plague invested bodies hurled at besieged cityFifteenth century–small pox infested clothing given by Spaniards to South American Indians1940–Japanese dropped “plague” on China1972–Biological Weapons Convention1984–Cuba stockpiling toxins1991–Iraq–research into Anthrax use1994–Aum Shinrikyo attempt airborne anthrax attack on Tokyo1995–Aryan Nation–U.S. member found with container of plague in Ohio2001–anthrax spores mailed to government offices and news media in U.S.