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PART THREE The War on Terror. CHAPTER 14 Countering Terrorism.

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Presentation on theme: "PART THREE The War on Terror. CHAPTER 14 Countering Terrorism."— Presentation transcript:

1 PART THREE The War on Terror

2 CHAPTER 14 Countering Terrorism

3 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Discuss why the SAS was so feared by the Provisional IRA during the “Troubles” List the counter terror units established by western governments to tackle terrorism Discuss why intelligence is such a key ingredient in the fight against terrorism Discuss how the threat of chemical and biological warfare can easily pose a threat to any democracy

4 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 4 Terms to Remember  Al Jazeera  Emergency Provisions  European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC)  General Staff Reconnaissance Unit #69  Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG-9)  Groupment d’intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale (GIGN)  Grupo Especial de Operaciones (GEO)  Human intelligence (HUMINT)  Interpol  Joint Task Force 2 (JTF-2)  Major Criminal Hijack (MCHJ)  Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS)  Nerve agents  Signals intelligence (SIGINT)  Special Air Service Regiment (SAS)  Special Boat Squadron (SBS)  Vesicants

5 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 5 Roles for Counter Terrorism  Legislation in many countries banning membership in terror and subversive organizations.  Civil liberties and rights have to sometime be temporarily suspended to facilitate law enforcement.  Drastic powers in the U.K. restricting Irish terror groups required legislation to be constantly reviewed or its powers would lapse.

6 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 6 Maintaining Order  PIRA turned London into its battleground.  Police did not respond with a vicious suspension of civil liberties as is often seen in Latin American countries.  British Police acted to control the investigation and the emotion.  Police were supported by both the media and the public in general.  No vigilantism during the IRA campaign of the 1970s and 1980s.

7 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 7 Racial Profiling  Profiling for terrorist a Civil Liberties issue?  Profiling issues for Police departments – race as a determining factor  Failing to identify a terrorist – rather than upset someone else as a result!  Jean Charles de Menezes – possible mistaken identity – cost him his life

8 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 8 Repression  Former Soviet Union rarely reported any terrorist attacks.  Country survived on a culture of secret police and a vast network of informers in all areas of business and society.  Subversion in USSR was difficult to cultivate.  KGB would likely hear of any subversion and be able to respond with force in advance of any catastrophe.

9 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 9 Continued…  Britain resorted to “Big Brother” tactics and installed a vast network of CCTV cameras throughout the cities and motorway systems.  This has led to successful investigation of terrorist incidents.  July 2005 London bombers were observed on CCTV in advance of their attack and also conducting “dummy runs”

10 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 10 Continued… Military responses to terrorism are problematic. In urban situations - police have the function of investigating and providing policing functions and maintaining order. Military being used as police is often a failure e.g., U.S. Marines in Somalia, British Parachute Regiment in Northern Ireland, U.S. troops in Iraq. Soldiers often use heavy handed tactics that serve little purpose other than to generate animosity toward the troops that are supposed to be protecting the populous.

11 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 11 NORTHERN IRELAND THE TROUBLES EMERGENCY PROVISIONS ACT NO – GO AREAS LONDONDERRY and BELFAST British Army – sweeping powers Search homes at will for suspects

12 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 12 EMERGENCY PROVISONS ACT Security forces could detain anyone for up to 4 hours Security forces could detain anyone for up to 4 hours Search premises and homes without a warrant Search premises and homes without a warrant Between Army searched 250,000 homes Between Army searched 250,000 homes Discovered 5,800 Weapons and rounds of ammo Discovered 5,800 Weapons and rounds of ammo IRA called for a truce in 1974 from a position of weakness IRA called for a truce in 1974 from a position of weakness

13 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 13 International Legislation  Since the onslaught of modern day terror attacks dating back to the late 1960s, internationally recognized conventions have been formulated and adopted.  Twelve significant conventions developed over the last 60 years to address terrorism.

14 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 14 INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS The Tokyo Convention 1963 (Aviation Safety) The Tokyo Convention 1963 (Aviation Safety) Hostages Convention 1979 Hostages Convention 1979 Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against Safety of Fixed platforms Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against Safety of Fixed platforms The Hague Convention 1970 (Aircraft Hijackings) The Hague Convention 1970 (Aircraft Hijackings) The Montreal Convention 1971 (Sabotage of Aviation) The Montreal Convention 1971 (Sabotage of Aviation) Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons Nuclear Materials Convention 1980 Nuclear Materials Convention 1980 Unlawful Acts of Violence At Airports Unlawful Acts of Violence At Airports Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation Marking of Plastic Explosives For the Purpose of Detection 1991 Marking of Plastic Explosives For the Purpose of Detection 1991 The Suppression of Terrorist Bombing The Suppression of Terrorist Bombing Convention for the Suppression of Financing of Terrorism Convention for the Suppression of Financing of Terrorism

15 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 15 Airport Security and Passenger Screening  Weak security and applications led to major failings allowing attacks to take place  9-11 heralded a future of change for aviation and security.  Since 9-11, airport security has undergone reviews and significant changes (e.g., private security out, Transportation Security Agency in.  Homeland Security spending billions on next generation technology.

16 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 16 Global Threat to Aviation  1970s–decades of the hijacker  1980s decade of bombs in baggage  Weak-minded attitudes to airport and aviation security allowed the events of September 11, 2001 to be planned and executed  2001–suicide aircraft as a means to deploy terror attacks

17 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 17 Continued…  Between 1960 and hijacking was a bargaining chip often used to coerce governments to release prisoners.  From 2000 the global threat is death. The terrorists are not bargaining. They want destruction and mass civil disorder.

18 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 18 Airport Facilities  Public places and very open by their very nature.  U.S. airports allowed non-traveling public beyond the security checkpoints; this has always been seen as compromising security.  Terrorists invariably attack the “soft underbelly” that is least protected.  After El Al stepped up aviation security in the 1960s terrorists were left with only ground level attacks at airport facilities.

19 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 19 Ground to Air Attacks  Man Portable Air Defense System  Ground to air missiles  Believed in existence to number half a million  Russian made SA-7 have been used in terror attacks  Thousands of systems have been built by France, China, Russia, and the United States  Only a matter of time before an attack occurs

20 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 20 Passenger Profiling  Necessary to determine who is travelling  Use skilled practitioners – El Al  Secure Flight Program matches passenger databases to Homeland Security database for terrorists  Terrorist No Fly Watch list developed  SPOT – Screening Passengers by Observation Technique

21 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 21 European Civil Aviation Conference  Terrorism is an International issue.  ECAC operates with active support of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)–three main principles in aviation security:  The threat of unlawful interference with civil aviation is likely to persist.  ICAO Standards and Practices must take into account of widely varying provisions from180 member states.  Mutual understanding to maintain high standards in the area of aviation security.

22 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 22 The Media Angle  The print and electronic media and its right to know and publish incidents has been a major factor in the development of terrorism and how events are viewed globally.  Restrictions need to be in place while an incident is ongoing.  Media can have negative effects on countering terror.  Delta Force attempted rescue at Beirut was cancelled as media had broadcast their arrival!  General Schwarzkof personally conducted press briefings during the Gulf War to limit the press problems for the campaign.

23 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 23 Continued…  Terrorists need to send their message.  This is ably done with news coverage and instant downloading to the Internet for global consumption.  The attacks on 9-11 consumed a shocked world.  The media showed Palestinians celebrating in the streets when the Twin Towers collapsed–different opinions.  In Zimbabwe, laws restrict the media from making any negative comments or coverage of the government or its ministers.

24 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 24 Al Jazeera  Arabic version of CNN–largest news media channel in the Middle East  Founded in 1996 and based in Qatar  Critics claim that it provides disproportionate coverage to various fundamentalist and extremist groups  Programs available worldwide via satellite

25 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 25 Lyons Summit 1996  Ministers agreed on framework of measures  The Agreement at Lyon focused on the following main points:  Adopting internal measures to prevent terrorism  Accelerate research and development for detecting explosives  Investigate groups with charitable status as a cover for terrorist fundraising  Adopt laws for the restriction and control of weapons and explosives  Review and amend current anti-terror legislation  Political asylum issues  Facilitate the exchange of information between states

26 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 26 U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1373 September 23, freeze all assets of 27 foreign groups, individuals and entities linked to terror September 23, freeze all assets of 27 foreign groups, individuals and entities linked to terror September 28, 2001 call for the criminalizing the Provision of funds to terrorists and groups October 5, 2001 U.S Attorney General Redesignated 25 terror groups under the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act 1996 October 5, 2001 U.S Attorney General Redesignated 25 terror groups under the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act 1996 October 12, Executive Order 13224, 39 names added to list linking them to terrorism October 12, Executive Order 13224, 39 names added to list linking them to terrorism October 26, 2001 USA Patriot Act enacted October 26, 2001 USA Patriot Act enacted October 29, Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force created October 29, Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force created November 2, 2001 U.S. designates 22 terrorist organizations worldwide November 2, 2001 U.S. designates 22 terrorist organizations worldwide November 7, 2001 U.S. adds 62 new organizations linked to Al Barakaat November 7, 2001 U.S. adds 62 new organizations linked to Al Barakaat December 4, 2001 U.S. Freezes the assets of The Holy Land Foundation In Texas December 4, 2001 U.S. Freezes the assets of The Holy Land Foundation In Texas December 5, 2001 U.S. designates 39 groups as terrorist Organizations under The Patriot Act December 5, 2001 U.S. designates 39 groups as terrorist Organizations under The Patriot Act

27 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 27 The Patriot Act  Act was the Congressional response to the terror attacks  Hastily formed and like Northern Ireland legislation the Act has time limitations within  Act allows for expanded surveillance  Increased use of material witness warrants  Critics–act is too far reaching and severely limits the rights and freedoms of U.S. citizens

28 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 28 U.S. NAVAL STATION— GUANTANAMO BAY — CUBA  Located on South east corner of Cuba  Naval Station converted into a detention facility for enemy combatants from Iraq and elsewhere  Holding detainees since the Afghanistan invasion in 2002  Military tribunals conducted on site

29 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 29 International Policing  INTERPOL–International police cooperation agency  Based in Europe  Terrorism defined by INTERPOL – “a crime characterized by violence or intimidation, usually against innocent victims in order to obtain a political or social objective”

30 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 30 Gathering Intelligence  Intelligence operations will change with the types of threat presented.  In London, in the 1990s, the intelligence gathering on PIRA after spectacular attacks in London was transferred from the police to MI5 (British Intelligence).  Thirty-nine percent of U.K. Government resources went to compiling data on terrorist groups.  To keep MI5 covert there has been cooperation between MI5 and the police in order to carry out arrests.

31 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 31 HUMANINT 9-11– critics and the public derided the lack of intelligence capability in the U.S. Unconventional attacks on U.S. soil were obviously not a prime intelligence factor prior to 9-11 Budget constraints on HUMANIT trace back to the end of the Cold War

32 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 32 SIGINT  A balance must be struck with signals intelligence–the use of advance technology coupled with HUMANINT  Homeland Security–designed to bridge the gap and encompass all intelligence gathering operations and to insure cooperation between previously competing agencies

33 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 33 Intelligence Services  Britain’s MI5–staffed by civilians – not a secret police unit  Established at the time of the Great War  Has undergone many changes over the decades  After 9-11 established a center of excellence for intelligence gathering and analyzing threat assessments

34 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 34 Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (U.K.)  Established to analyze international terror threats  Established in June 2003  Based at Thames House, London  Self-standing organization  Reports to the Director General of the Security Services

35 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 35 CIA & FBI  Cohesive levels of cooperation were not a reality between these groups prior to  U.S.A. Patriot Act and Intelligence Reform and Prevention of Terrorism Act were designed to facilitate intelligence sharing.  Time will tell if this comes to fruition.

36 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 36 Counter Terror Units Britain’s Special Air Service Regiment motto “Who Dares Wins” Established in WWII by eccentric Scotsman David Sterling Ran ‘special operations’ behind enemy lines in North Africa Its famed HQ is at Hereford in the west of England Established the Counter Revolutionary Warfare Squadron to handle both domestic and international terrorism incidents SAS rescue mission at the Iranian Embassy siege in London and its Targeted assassination of PIRA members in Gibraltar in 1988

37 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 37 British SAS Regiment A highly skilled and dedicated unit among the elite of the elite counter terror units Trains with Units of GIGN and GSG-9 Its Navy partner is the Special Boat Squadron SAS has associate Commonwealth Units in New Zealand and Australia. The Unit in Rhodesia was disbanded when the country was granted independence.

38 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 38 Australia  Tactical Assault Group and Special Air Service Regiment formed in 1956 and is Australia’s very capable response unit for terror attacks.  SASR has seen action in Borneo as well as “special operations” during the Vietnam War.  Has staff based at Fort Bragg and Little Creek.  Offshore Installations Assault Group – seaborne response unit

39 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 39 Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Part of the original SAS that formed in WWII and was disbanded soon after Well trained in jungle warfare Rhodesian troopers fought in Malaya and became C Squadron 22 SAS (Malayan Scouts) When Black Nationalists came to power the SAS were disbanded and many fled south to South Africa.

40 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 40 Republic of Ireland Army Ranger Wing –trains with the SAS 100 troopers in strength Expert in Hostage Rescue, Search and Rescue, Close Protection Security, and Contingency Planning Operations Has close ties to GSG-9 and French GIGN

41 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 41 Spain  Grupo Especial De Operaciones (GEO)  Established to combat the ETA and GRAPO terrorist groups  Highly trained and effective–also trains with the GSG-9  Guarda Civil–a part of Spain’s National Police–involved in counter terrorism and hostage rescue

42 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 42 Persian Gulf  Sultan of Oman Special Forces–COBRAS  Army officers trained at Britain’s Royal Military Academy–Sandhurst  Strong ties with the British SAS  British SAS assisted Sultan’s forces during the Omani rebellion between 1962 and 1975  After British support the Sultan vowed never to be without such a highly trained force.  COBRAS based in Dhofar–they are seconded to the Oman Police

43 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 43 France  Groupment d’intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale (GIGN)  Formed after the Munich Olympic Games attacks and the takeover of the Saudi Embassy in Paris  Police unit, not military  8 months of intensive training  Based near Paris the unit deals with terrorist and criminal incidents

44 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 44 Netherlands  Bijondere Bijstands Eenheid (BBE)  The Netherlands Marine Corps – “The Whole World Over” is their motto  Formed from the Dutch Marine Corps– capable of responding to incidents anywhere in the world  South Malaccan train hijacking-1975

45 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 45 Norway  Forsvarets Spesialkommando (FSK, Special Defense Commando)  Military unit formed in 1982  Formed to protect the country’s many North Sea oil rigs from terror attacks  Provides close protection to Dutch royal family  Works closely and trains with the British SAS

46 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 46 Germany  Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG-9)  Formed after the disaster at the Munich Olympic Games  Established 6 months after Munich in April 1973  Split into three definable units–each with 50 members with the exception of GSG-9/1 with 100 members for counter terrorism, GSG-9/2 handles maritime counter terrorism and GSG-9/3 handles airborne issues  GSG-9 was built by the legendary Col Ulrich Wegener–group assisted Israelis at the Entebbe airport rescue

47 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 47 Israel  Sayeret Mat’kal also called the General Staff Reconnaissance Unit 269  Formed in 1957  At the forefront of every Israeli counter terrorism strategy  After the Munich Olympics it was mandated to track down and kill those responsible

48 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 48 Czech Republic  Utvar Rychleho Nasazeni (URNA) – response unit  Formed along the same lines as other western European counter terror units  Established to protect foreign heads of state including major sporting venues and counter terror operations  Considered a highly competent and elite unit

49 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 49 Hostage Rescue Units  Hostage rescue units can be found around the world in Egypt, the Philippines, India, the United States, Canada, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and many other countries.  Usually formed as part of national or state police units and sometimes military units.  Renowned HRU–Delta Force–brainchild of Charles Beckwith in the 1970s

50 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 50 Canada  JTF-2–Canada’s Joint Task Force  Responsible for counter terrorism operations–little known about this unit and has served in Afghanistan during the invasion to oust the Taliban  Operates on similar lines to the British SAS

51 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 51 Piracy  Robbery, kidnapping, or violence committed at sea  Piracy is defined under Article 101 of the U.N. Convention of the Law of the Sea  International Maritime Agency defines three types and levels of piracy:  Low Level Armed Robbery–LLAR  Medium-Level Armed Robbery and Assault –MLAAR  Major Criminal Hijack–MCHJ

52 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 52 International Code for the Security of Ships and Port Facilities  Ships of more than 500 tons must have a ship security officer on international voyages.  Danger areas–South China Sea and the Horn of Africa off the coast of Somalia  Container shipping considered at risk  One percent of all containers are searched entering the United States.

53 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 53 Container Security Initiative  Initiative announced in the United States in January 2002  Four core principles:  Using intelligence and automated information to identify and target containers that pose a risk for terrorism  Pre-screening those containers that pose a risk at the port of DEPARTURE – before they reach the U.S.  Using detection technology to quickly pre-screen containers that pose a risk  Use of smarter tamper evident containers

54 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 54 Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction  At the end of the Cold War the world was awash in nuclear materials  2004 U.N. Atomic Energy Agency  350 sites in 58 countries possess highly enriched uranium (HEU)  Two dozen have enough to build a nuclear bomb

55 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 55 HISTORY OF CHEMICAL AGENTS WORLD WAR I GERMAN ARMY USE MUSTARD GAS IN EUROPE GERMAN ARMY USE MUSTARD GAS IN EUROPE NORTH AFRICA 1935 NORTH AFRICA 1935 ITALIANS USE MUSTARD GAS WHEN THEY INVADE ETHIOPIA ITALIANS USE MUSTARD GAS WHEN THEY INVADE ETHIOPIA MIDDLE EAST MIDDLE EAST SOVIETS & EGYPTIANS USE MUSTARD GAS IN YEMEN SOVIETS & EGYPTIANS USE MUSTARD GAS IN YEMEN VIETNAM WAR U.S. USED AGENT ORANGE & PURPLE DEFOLIENT U.S. USED AGENT ORANGE & PURPLE DEFOLIENT GAS USED BY IRAN AND IRAQ AND ALSO RUSSIANS IN AFGHANISTAN GAS USED BY IRAN AND IRAQ AND ALSO RUSSIANS IN AFGHANISTAN

56 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 56 History of Chemical Weapons  Toxins and poisons have been used in political assassination.  1976–Arab Revolutionary Army–injects mercury into food products  1979 –Germany–Red Brigade–400 kilos of chemical precursors seized  1995–Israel–supply of coffee to a military base had been contaminated with a nerve agent

57 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 57 Continued…  1984–a supply of Tylenol is contaminated with Arsenic poison  1994–Tokyo Aum Shinrikyo release Sarin gas into the subway system killing 12 and injuring 5,000  2004–Ukraine–Viktor Yushchenko President of the Ukraine is poisoned with dioxin

58 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 58 Chemical Agents  Nerve Agents  GA -Tabun  GB - Sarin  GD - Soman  VX - V Agents  Vesicants or Blistering Agents  H – Mustard  HD – Distilled mustard  CX – Phosgene oxide  L - Lewisite  Nerve Agents  GA -Tabun  GB - Sarin  GD - Soman  VX - V Agents  Vesicants or Blistering Agents  H – Mustard  HD – Distilled mustard  CX – Phosgene oxide  L - Lewisite  Blood Agents  AC – Hydrogen cyanide  CK – Cyanogens chloride  Blood Agents  AC – Hydrogen cyanide  CK – Cyanogens chloride

59 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 59 Continued…  Choking Agents  Chlorine  Phosgene  Chloropicrin  Choking Agents  Chlorine  Phosgene  Chloropicrin  Irritating Agents  CN - Standard tear gas  CS - Stronger tear gas – induces vomiting  DM – Adamsite vomiting agent  Irritating Agents  CN - Standard tear gas  CS - Stronger tear gas – induces vomiting  DM – Adamsite vomiting agent

60 Terrorism Today, The Past The Players The Future 4 Edition. Jeremy R Spindlove and Clifford E Simonsen © 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 60 History of Biological Weapons  1346–Tartar Army–plague invested bodies hurled at besieged city  Fifteenth century–small pox infested clothing given by Spaniards to South American Indians  1940–Japanese dropped “plague” on China  1972–Biological Weapons Convention  1984–Cuba stockpiling toxins  1991–Iraq–research into Anthrax use  1994–Aum Shinrikyo attempt airborne anthrax attack on Tokyo  1995–Aryan Nation–U.S. member found with container of plague in Ohio  2001–anthrax spores mailed to government offices and news media in U.S.


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