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PART THREE The War on Terror.

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Presentation on theme: "PART THREE The War on Terror."— Presentation transcript:

1 PART THREE The War on Terror

2 CHAPTER 14 Countering Terrorism

3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Discuss why the SAS was so feared by the Provisional IRA during the “Troubles” List the counter terror units established by western governments to tackle terrorism Discuss why intelligence is such a key ingredient in the fight against terrorism Discuss how the threat of chemical and biological warfare can easily pose a threat to any democracy

4 Terms to Remember Al Jazeera Emergency Provisions
European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) General Staff Reconnaissance Unit #69 Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG-9) Groupment d’intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale (GIGN) Grupo Especial de Operaciones (GEO) Human intelligence (HUMINT) Interpol Joint Task Force 2 (JTF-2) Major Criminal Hijack (MCHJ) Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) Nerve agents Signals intelligence (SIGINT) Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) Special Boat Squadron (SBS) Vesicants

5 Roles for Counter Terrorism
Legislation in many countries banning membership in terror and subversive organizations. Civil liberties and rights have to sometime be temporarily suspended to facilitate law enforcement. Drastic powers in the U.K. restricting Irish terror groups required legislation to be constantly reviewed or its powers would lapse.

6 Maintaining Order PIRA turned London into its battleground.
Police did not respond with a vicious suspension of civil liberties as is often seen in Latin American countries. British Police acted to control the investigation and the emotion. Police were supported by both the media and the public in general. No vigilantism during the IRA campaign of the 1970s and 1980s.

7 Racial Profiling Profiling for terrorist a Civil Liberties issue?
Profiling issues for Police departments – race as a determining factor Failing to identify a terrorist – rather than upset someone else as a result! Jean Charles de Menezes – possible mistaken identity – cost him his life

8 Repression Former Soviet Union rarely reported any terrorist attacks.
Country survived on a culture of secret police and a vast network of informers in all areas of business and society. Subversion in USSR was difficult to cultivate. KGB would likely hear of any subversion and be able to respond with force in advance of any catastrophe.

9 Continued… Britain resorted to “Big Brother” tactics and installed a vast network of CCTV cameras throughout the cities and motorway systems. This has led to successful investigation of terrorist incidents. July 2005 London bombers were observed on CCTV in advance of their attack and also conducting “dummy runs”

10 Continued… Military responses to terrorism are problematic.
In urban situations - police have the function of investigating and providing policing functions and maintaining order. Military being used as police is often a failure e.g., U.S. Marines in Somalia, British Parachute Regiment in Northern Ireland, U.S. troops in Iraq. Soldiers often use heavy handed tactics that serve little purpose other than to generate animosity toward the troops that are supposed to be protecting the populous.

11 NORTHERN IRELAND THE TROUBLES NO – GO AREAS British Army – sweeping powers EMERGENCY PROVISIONS ACT LONDONDERRY and BELFAST Search homes at will for suspects

Security forces could detain anyone for up to 4 hours Between Army searched 250,000 homes IRA called for a truce in 1974 from a position of weakness Discovered 5,800 Weapons and rounds of ammo Search premises and homes without a warrant

13 International Legislation
Since the onslaught of modern day terror attacks dating back to the late 1960s, internationally recognized conventions have been formulated and adopted. Twelve significant conventions developed over the last 60 years to address terrorism.

The Tokyo Convention 1963 (Aviation Safety) Hostages Convention 1979 Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against Safety of Fixed platforms The Hague Convention 1970 (Aircraft Hijackings) Nuclear Materials Convention 1980 Marking of Plastic Explosives For the Purpose of Detection 1991 Unlawful Acts of Violence At Airports The Montreal Convention 1971 (Sabotage of Aviation) The Suppression of Terrorist Bombing Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons Convention for the Suppression of Financing of Terrorism

15 Airport Security and Passenger Screening
Weak security and applications led to major failings allowing attacks to take place 9-11 heralded a future of change for aviation and security. Since 9-11, airport security has undergone reviews and significant changes (e.g., private security out, Transportation Security Agency in. Homeland Security spending billions on next generation technology.

16 Global Threat to Aviation
1970s–decades of the hijacker 1980s decade of bombs in baggage Weak-minded attitudes to airport and aviation security allowed the events of September 11, 2001 to be planned and executed 2001–suicide aircraft as a means to deploy terror attacks

17 Continued… Between 1960 and hijacking was a bargaining chip often used to coerce governments to release prisoners. From 2000 the global threat is death. The terrorists are not bargaining. They want destruction and mass civil disorder.

18 Airport Facilities Public places and very open by their very nature.
U.S. airports allowed non-traveling public beyond the security checkpoints; this has always been seen as compromising security. Terrorists invariably attack the “soft underbelly” that is least protected. After El Al stepped up aviation security in the 1960s terrorists were left with only ground level attacks at airport facilities.

19 Ground to Air Attacks Man Portable Air Defense System
Ground to air missiles Believed in existence to number half a million Russian made SA-7 have been used in terror attacks Thousands of systems have been built by France, China, Russia, and the United States Only a matter of time before an attack occurs

20 Passenger Profiling Necessary to determine who is travelling
Use skilled practitioners – El Al Secure Flight Program matches passenger databases to Homeland Security database for terrorists Terrorist No Fly Watch list developed SPOT – Screening Passengers by Observation Technique

21 European Civil Aviation Conference
Terrorism is an International issue. ECAC operates with active support of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)–three main principles in aviation security: The threat of unlawful interference with civil aviation is likely to persist. ICAO Standards and Practices must take into account of widely varying provisions from180 member states. Mutual understanding to maintain high standards in the area of aviation security.

22 The Media Angle The print and electronic media and its right to know and publish incidents has been a major factor in the development of terrorism and how events are viewed globally. Restrictions need to be in place while an incident is ongoing. Media can have negative effects on countering terror. Delta Force attempted rescue at Beirut was cancelled as media had broadcast their arrival! General Schwarzkof personally conducted press briefings during the Gulf War to limit the press problems for the campaign .

23 Continued… Terrorists need to send their message.
This is ably done with news coverage and instant downloading to the Internet for global consumption. The attacks on 9-11 consumed a shocked world. The media showed Palestinians celebrating in the streets when the Twin Towers collapsed–different opinions. In Zimbabwe, laws restrict the media from making any negative comments or coverage of the government or its ministers.

24 Al Jazeera Arabic version of CNN–largest news media channel in the Middle East Founded in 1996 and based in Qatar Critics claim that it provides disproportionate coverage to various fundamentalist and extremist groups Programs available worldwide via satellite

25 Lyons Summit 1996 Ministers agreed on framework of measures
The Agreement at Lyon focused on the following main points: Adopting internal measures to prevent terrorism Accelerate research and development for detecting explosives Investigate groups with charitable status as a cover for terrorist fundraising Adopt laws for the restriction and control of weapons and explosives Review and amend current anti-terror legislation Political asylum issues Facilitate the exchange of information between states

September 23, freeze all assets of 27 foreign groups, individuals and entities linked to terror October 26, 2001 USA Patriot Act enacted December 4, 2001 U.S. Freezes the assets of The Holy Land Foundation In Texas October 5, U.S Attorney General Redesignated 25 terror groups under the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act 1996 October 29, Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force created December 5, 2001 U.S. designates 39 groups as terrorist Organizations under The Patriot Act November 2, 2001 U.S. designates 22 terrorist organizations worldwide September 28, 2001 call for the criminalizing the Provision of funds to terrorists and groups November 7, 2001 U.S. adds 62 new organizations linked to Al Barakaat October 12, Executive Order 13224, 39 names added to list linking them to terrorism

27 The Patriot Act Act was the Congressional response to the 9-11 terror attacks Hastily formed and like Northern Ireland legislation the Act has time limitations within Act allows for expanded surveillance Increased use of material witness warrants Critics–act is too far reaching and severely limits the rights and freedoms of U.S. citizens

Located on South east corner of Cuba Naval Station converted into a detention facility for enemy combatants from Iraq and elsewhere Holding detainees since the Afghanistan invasion in 2002 Military tribunals conducted on site

29 International Policing
INTERPOL–International police cooperation agency Based in Europe Terrorism defined by INTERPOL – “a crime characterized by violence or intimidation, usually against innocent victims in order to obtain a political or social objective”

30 Gathering Intelligence
Intelligence operations will change with the types of threat presented. In London, in the 1990s, the intelligence gathering on PIRA after spectacular attacks in London was transferred from the police to MI5 (British Intelligence). Thirty-nine percent of U.K. Government resources went to compiling data on terrorist groups. To keep MI5 covert there has been cooperation between MI5 and the police in order to carry out arrests.

31 HUMANINT 9-11– critics and the public derided the lack of intelligence capability in the U.S. Unconventional attacks on U.S. soil were obviously not a prime intelligence factor prior to 9-11 Budget constraints on HUMANIT trace back to the end of the Cold War

32 SIGINT A balance must be struck with signals intelligence–the use of advance technology coupled with HUMANINT Homeland Security–designed to bridge the gap and encompass all intelligence gathering operations and to insure cooperation between previously competing agencies

33 Intelligence Services
Britain’s MI5–staffed by civilians – not a secret police unit Established at the time of the Great War Has undergone many changes over the decades After 9-11 established a center of excellence for intelligence gathering and analyzing threat assessments

34 Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (U.K.)
Established to analyze international terror threats Established in June 2003 Based at Thames House, London Self-standing organization Reports to the Director General of the Security Services

35 CIA & FBI Cohesive levels of cooperation were not a reality between these groups prior to 9-11. U.S.A. Patriot Act and Intelligence Reform and Prevention of Terrorism Act were designed to facilitate intelligence sharing. Time will tell if this comes to fruition.

36 Counter Terror Units Britain’s Special Air Service Regiment motto “Who Dares Wins” Established in WWII by eccentric Scotsman David Sterling Ran ‘special operations’ behind enemy lines in North Africa Its famed HQ is at Hereford in the west of England Established the Counter Revolutionary Warfare Squadron to handle both domestic and international terrorism incidents SAS rescue mission at the Iranian Embassy siege in London and its Targeted assassination of PIRA members in Gibraltar in 1988

37 British SAS Regiment A highly skilled and dedicated unit among the elite of the elite counter terror units Trains with Units of GIGN and GSG-9 Its Navy partner is the Special Boat Squadron SAS has associate Commonwealth Units in New Zealand and Australia. The Unit in Rhodesia was disbanded when the country was granted independence.

38 Australia Tactical Assault Group and Special Air Service Regiment formed in 1956 and is Australia’s very capable response unit for terror attacks. SASR has seen action in Borneo as well as “special operations” during the Vietnam War. Has staff based at Fort Bragg and Little Creek. Offshore Installations Assault Group –seaborne response unit

39 Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Part of the original SAS that formed in WWII and was disbanded soon after Well trained in jungle warfare Rhodesian troopers fought in Malaya and became C Squadron 22 SAS (Malayan Scouts) When Black Nationalists came to power the SAS were disbanded and many fled south to South Africa.

40 Republic of Ireland Army Ranger Wing –trains with the SAS
100 troopers in strength Expert in Hostage Rescue, Search and Rescue, Close Protection Security, and Contingency Planning Operations Has close ties to GSG-9 and French GIGN

41 Spain Grupo Especial De Operaciones (GEO)
Established to combat the ETA and GRAPO terrorist groups Highly trained and effective–also trains with the GSG-9 Guarda Civil–a part of Spain’s National Police–involved in counter terrorism and hostage rescue

42 Persian Gulf Sultan of Oman Special Forces–COBRAS
Army officers trained at Britain’s Royal Military Academy–Sandhurst Strong ties with the British SAS British SAS assisted Sultan’s forces during the Omani rebellion between 1962 and 1975 After British support the Sultan vowed never to be without such a highly trained force. COBRAS based in Dhofar–they are seconded to the Oman Police

43 France Groupment d’intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale (GIGN)
Formed after the Munich Olympic Games attacks and the takeover of the Saudi Embassy in Paris Police unit, not military 8 months of intensive training Based near Paris the unit deals with terrorist and criminal incidents

44 Netherlands Bijondere Bijstands Eenheid (BBE)
The Netherlands Marine Corps – “The Whole World Over” is their motto Formed from the Dutch Marine Corps–capable of responding to incidents anywhere in the world South Malaccan train hijacking-1975

45 Norway Forsvarets Spesialkommando (FSK, Special Defense Commando)
Military unit formed in 1982 Formed to protect the country’s many North Sea oil rigs from terror attacks Provides close protection to Dutch royal family Works closely and trains with the British SAS

46 Germany Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG-9)
Formed after the disaster at the Munich Olympic Games Established 6 months after Munich in April 1973 Split into three definable units–each with 50 members with the exception of GSG-9/1 with 100 members for counter terrorism, GSG-9/2 handles maritime counter terrorism and GSG-9/3 handles airborne issues GSG-9 was built by the legendary Col Ulrich Wegener–group assisted Israelis at the Entebbe airport rescue

47 Israel Sayeret Mat’kal also called the General Staff Reconnaissance Unit 269 Formed in 1957 At the forefront of every Israeli counter terrorism strategy After the Munich Olympics it was mandated to track down and kill those responsible

48 Czech Republic Utvar Rychleho Nasazeni (URNA) – response unit
Formed along the same lines as other western European counter terror units Established to protect foreign heads of state including major sporting venues and counter terror operations Considered a highly competent and elite unit

49 Hostage Rescue Units Hostage rescue units can be found around the world in Egypt, the Philippines, India, the United States, Canada, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and many other countries. Usually formed as part of national or state police units and sometimes military units. Renowned HRU–Delta Force–brainchild of Charles Beckwith in the 1970s

50 Canada JTF-2–Canada’s Joint Task Force
Responsible for counter terrorism operations–little known about this unit and has served in Afghanistan during the invasion to oust the Taliban Operates on similar lines to the British SAS

51 Piracy Robbery, kidnapping, or violence committed at sea
Piracy is defined under Article 101 of the U.N. Convention of the Law of the Sea International Maritime Agency defines three types and levels of piracy: Low Level Armed Robbery–LLAR Medium-Level Armed Robbery and Assault –MLAAR Major Criminal Hijack–MCHJ

52 International Code for the Security of Ships and Port Facilities
Ships of more than 500 tons must have a ship security officer on international voyages. Danger areas–South China Sea and the Horn of Africa off the coast of Somalia Container shipping considered at risk One percent of all containers are searched entering the United States.

53 Container Security Initiative
Initiative announced in the United States in January 2002 Four core principles: Using intelligence and automated information to identify and target containers that pose a risk for terrorism Pre-screening those containers that pose a risk at the port of DEPARTURE – before they reach the U.S. Using detection technology to quickly pre-screen containers that pose a risk Use of smarter tamper evident containers

54 Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction
At the end of the Cold War the world was awash in nuclear materials 2004 U.N. Atomic Energy Agency 350 sites in 58 countries possess highly enriched uranium (HEU) Two dozen have enough to build a nuclear bomb


56 History of Chemical Weapons
Toxins and poisons have been used in political assassination. 1976–Arab Revolutionary Army–injects mercury into food products 1979 –Germany–Red Brigade–400 kilos of chemical precursors seized 1995–Israel–supply of coffee to a military base had been contaminated with a nerve agent

57 Continued… 1984–a supply of Tylenol is contaminated with Arsenic poison 1994–Tokyo Aum Shinrikyo release Sarin gas into the subway system killing 12 and injuring 5,000 2004–Ukraine–Viktor Yushchenko President of the Ukraine is poisoned with dioxin

58 Chemical Agents Nerve Agents Blood Agents
GA -Tabun GB - Sarin GD - Soman VX - V Agents Vesicants or Blistering Agents H – Mustard HD – Distilled mustard CX – Phosgene oxide L - Lewisite Blood Agents AC – Hydrogen cyanide CK – Cyanogens chloride

59 Continued… Choking Agents Irritating Agents Chlorine Phosgene
Chloropicrin Irritating Agents CN - Standard tear gas CS - Stronger tear gas – induces vomiting DM – Adamsite vomiting agent

60 History of Biological Weapons
1346–Tartar Army–plague invested bodies hurled at besieged city Fifteenth century–small pox infested clothing given by Spaniards to South American Indians 1940–Japanese dropped “plague” on China 1972–Biological Weapons Convention 1984–Cuba stockpiling toxins 1991–Iraq–research into Anthrax use 1994–Aum Shinrikyo attempt airborne anthrax attack on Tokyo 1995–Aryan Nation–U.S. member found with container of plague in Ohio 2001–anthrax spores mailed to government offices and news media in U.S.

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