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Lecture 18 The Church and Politics in Medieval Europe Dr. Ann T. Orlando 14 October 2014 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 18 The Church and Politics in Medieval Europe Dr. Ann T. Orlando 14 October 2014 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 18 The Church and Politics in Medieval Europe Dr. Ann T. Orlando 14 October 2014 1

2 Introduction Review 10 th -11 th C Europe Holy Roman Empire Church Scandal Popes Lay Investiture 2

3 Review History 600 - 900 Muslim Arab armies conquer much of Eastern Empire, Southern Mediterranean, North Africa, Spain Expansion into Europe stopped by Charles Martel (Charlemagne’s grandfather) and Pepin the Short (Charlemagne's father) Charlemagne United Western Europe Crowned by Pope Leo III in 800 After Charlemagne Kingdom divided between his sons Infighting among them led to fracturing of political unity in Europe Papal claims to political control in West Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) Lost its southern Mediterranean territory to Arab armies Increasingly unhappy with Western claims to be the ‘Roman’ Empire 3

4 Developments in Holy Roman Empire (Germany, Austria, Northern Italy) Otto I, the Great, (912-973) established a strong kingdom in the center of Europe on the Carolingian model Conquered northern Italy 951 Defeated Magyar invasions 955 Crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII Beginning of a concept last until 1806 (or maybe 1918) Henry III (ruled 1039-1056) powerful enough to control papacy But his son, Henry IV was not 4

5 Pope and Holy Roman Emperor Otto the Great, King of East Franks (Germans), King/Emperor ruled 936- 973 Made bishops civil officials within his kingdom Emperor gives the bishop the civil and religious symbols of his office Beginning of ‘lay investiture’ controversy Celibacy of bishops meant Otto did not have to worry about competing families to his own h2_17.190.229.jpg 5

6 Holy Roman Empire in 11 th C 6

7 Papacy 900 - 1050 Century after Charlemagne and his successors Political power in Europe shifted to Germany (Holy Roman Empire, Otto I) Papal military and political alliances shaky Popes of 10 th C infamous for corruption and scandal John XII supposedly died while making love to a prostitute Stephen VI strangled Benedict VI smothered Papacy the instrument of competing aristocratic Roman families Nepotism Simony Widespread sexual, fiscal abuse by clergy at all levels Reform will come from monastery 7

8 Otto and Pope John XII (Part 1) Pope John XII reigned 955-964 From wealthy Tuscan family Led troops into battle in northern Italy John established and alliance with Otto, who agreed to send troops to help John John XII crowned Otto Holy Roman Emperor In return agreement that no Pope could be elected without consent of Holy Roman Emperor 8

9 Otto and Pope John XII (Part 2) Otto concerned about John’s persosnal morality, and seems to have lectured him about this John concerned that Otto was becoming too powerful in Italy John sends envoys to Magyars in Hungary and Byzantines suggesting an alliance against Otto Otto discovers this and deposes John XII, establishes Leo VIII as ‘anti-pope’ John XII dies in bed with prostitute in 964 9

10 Pope St. Gregory VII (1020- 1085) Entered Cluny as a young man Known as a reformer in the mold of Peter Damian Elected Pope amid great dissention 1073 Key ecclesial changes in his pontificate Deposition of all clergy who achieved office through simony Forbade married priests to celebrate Mass Most famous for encounter with Emperor Henry IV and lay investiture of bishops Set stage for his successor Urban II Crusades Establishment of Curia and more efficient papal administration 10

11 Pope and HRE (cont.) Pope Gregory VII assertion of Papal primacy, Dictatus Papae; Emperor cannot invest bishops with symbols of office, or participate in election of Pope Henry IV refuses to accept Dictatus Papae Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Emperor Henry IV; Henry repents at Canossa and is forgiven 11

12 Pope and HRE (cont.) Concordat of Worms (1122) Compromise resolves (temporarily) issues between Pope and Holy Roman Emperor Agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Henry V Pope selects bishops and abbots, and invests them with symbols of spiritual office Emperor can invest bishops and abbots with lay responsibilities and be present at installation 12

13 Assignments Pope Gregory VII, Dictatus Papae, /g7-dictpap.asp /g7-dictpap.asp 13

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