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Skin products Question work through Neil Watson The Body Shop.

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Presentation on theme: "Skin products Question work through Neil Watson The Body Shop."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skin products Question work through Neil Watson The Body Shop

2 21 April Cleansing Products Moisturising Products Controlling Body odour and sweating Sun Protection Removal of unwanted hair Skin Products

3 Question - Hair Removal Answer all parts:- a) What do you understand by the term “Epilation” and “Depilation”? ( 2 Marks) ( 2 Marks) b) List methods of unwanted hair removal both mechanical and chemical. ( 2 Marks)( 2 Marks) c) What are the ideal properties of a wet shaving product? ( 5 Marks)( 5 Marks) d) Describe the basic components of a soap based shaving product and their effects. ( 7 Marks) ( 7 Marks) e) List the properties of a good chemical depilatory product. (7 Marks)7 Marks) f) Explain how the active ingredients used in a chemical depilatory work. ( 2 Marks) ( 2 Marks) NEXT QUESTION

4 Answers a) Epilation – is a process of hair removal from below the skin’s surface Depilation – is a process of the temporary removal of hair from the surface of the skin. b) Mechanical hair removal – Tweezing, Threading, Electrical epilation, Electrolysis, Sugaring, Waxing and shaving Chemical hair removal – Thioglycollate, Enzymes Back to question↑

5 c) The hallmarks of a good wet shaving preparation are twofold: i) to soften the hair ii) to act as a lubricant between hardware and the skin. The product must foam quickly and copiously, foam must be stable enough to last throughout shaving process, foam must surround, separate and hold hair. Product must soften and swell hair and lubricate the skin to reduce blade resistance thus preventing razor burn, must be non-irritating to the skin and should have a pleasant fragrance. Back to question↑

6 d) Basic ingredients of soap based shaving products and its effects: –Short chain fatty acids (e.g. C12 – C14) – imparts large quantity of loose foam quickly, but can be more irritant to skin –Long chain fatty acids (e.g. C16 – C18) – imparts small quantity of thick foam, hardening effect on soap –Triethanolamine – imparts fast copious foam, soft effect on soap –Potassium hydroxide solution – imparts copious foam of soft nature –Sodium hydroxide solution – imparts moderate foam which is hard –Glycerine – stabilises foam and prevents it from drying out, softens soap Back to question↑

7 e) Two types of depilatory are:- i) Thioglycollate ii) enzyme based system A good chemical depilatory should have the following properties:- 1 - softens hair to aid rapid removal within 7 to 20 minutes (shorter time for fine hair, longer time for coarse hair) 2 - non-toxic, non-irritating to the skin 3 - cosmetically elegant: economical to use, easy to apply, stable in the pack, acceptable smell 4 - no damage caused to clothing 5 - the pH must not exceed 12.7, otherwise it will cause severe skin buns Back to question↑

8 f) Chemical Thioglycollate based depilatories work by breaking disulphide linkage in the keratin hair fibres, and totally disintegrate the hair OR The principle of the chemical depilatory depends on the extensive swelling of hair fibres because of disulphide bond reduction and the effect of high pH on hydrogen bonding. The final de-hairing of skin is achieved by scraping with a blunt instrument or rubbing with terry cloth of the depilatory-treated skin area Back to question↑ NEXT QUESTION

9 QUESTION - Suncare Answer all parts:- a) Define what is meant by the term sunscreen. ( 2 Marks) b) Give examples of chemical and physical sunscreen agents and explain the difference between them in terms of their mode of action. ( 6 Marks)( 6 Marks) c) Give examples of UVA and UVB sunscreens. ( 2 Marks) d) Describe the procedure for measuring SPF in human test volunteers. ( 8 Marks) e) Explain how a sun protection factor (SPF) is calculated. ( 7 Marks) NEXT QUESTION

10 a) A Sunscreen is the UV light absorbing agent that helps to lower the incidence of dermal malignancies. The function of the sunscreen is the protection of the skin from damaging UV light. Back to question↑

11 b) Chemical Sunscreens; chemically absorb ultraviolet light Ethylhexyl Salicylate Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate Ethylhexyl dimethyl paraben Benzophenone Octylcrylene Homosalate Physical Sunscreens; works by reflecting and scattering UV light They are micronized, highly insoluble organic molecules such as Guanine Or Inorganic like, Titanium Dioxide Zinc Oxide Back to question↑

12 c) UVA filter: Benzophenone, Butyl Methoxy dibenzoylmethane, methyl anthranilate UVB filter: PABA, Ethylhexyl Salicylate, Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate Back to question↑

13 d) Measurement is done under controlled conditions, in the presence of a highly skilled scientist (preferably dermatologist) The following steps are involved: Step I – Selection of suitable panellists (minimum10) with skin type I to III with written consent Step II – suitable test sites, usually panellists back are marked to measure MED Step III – the test sites (unprotected skin) is exposed to graduated increasing amount of UV radiation (290 – 300 nms) from solar simulator lamp Step IV – test sites are checked about 24 hours after exposure Step V – the dermatologist picks out the sites showing MED Step VI – test product is applied to randomised test sites and allowed to rest for at least 15 minutes Step VII – then the test sites exposed to UV radiation using solar simulating lamp for a set time Step VIII – After irradiation test sites are examine for any reddening / darkening and re- examined after 24 hours Step IX – SPF is calculated for each panellist and SPF is worked out for the group using statistical means Back to question↑

14 e) SPF = Time to produce erythema in protected skin Time to produce erythema in unprotected skin OR SPF = MED with sunscreen MED without sunscreen MED – minimal erythemal dose Sun protection factor (SPF) testing is a measure of the ability of UVB to cause erythema in the skin, the test relies on the accurate detection of first sign of erythema by measuring the minimal erythemal dose. Back to question↑

15 QUESTION – Skin Cleansing Answer all parts:- a. Classify the main types of skin cleansing formulations available on the market. ( 5 Marks)( 5 Marks) b. List the common active raw materials used for cleansing dry, normal and oily skin. (10 Marks)(10 Marks) c. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using:- i) Soap. ii) Synthetic detergents. iii) Emulsion cleansing products ( 7 Marks)( 7 Marks) d. Give examples of the protection and repair requirements that consumers may expect in skincare products. ( 3 Marks)( 3 Marks) NEXT QUESTION

16 a) Soap. (Superfatted soap, Transparent/ Glycerin soap, Translucent/ pearlised soap, Combo Bars (Dove Beauty Bar, Syndet bars.) Emulsions. (Creams, Lotions, Milk, Cold Cream, Rinse –off emulsions (foaming cleansers)). Liquid synthetic detergents. Gels. (Surfactant, basic viscous lotion). Wipes. Masks. Mousse. Scrubs. Toners. Back to question↑

17 b) Raw Materials used for Cleansing dry skin. Emulsion products; w/o or o/w emulsions which combine the solvency of water and oils to effect cleansing of the skin containing high levels of emollients (oils) generally between % Emollients – IPP, IPM, Mineral Oil, Jojoba Oil, Vegetable Oil and Menthol for cooling agent. Raw Materials used for Cleansing Normal and Combination skin. These include soap, combo bars, synthetic detergents (syndet bar), liquids containing mixture of fatty acid salts, Fatty Acid Esters, (C12 – Sodium Laurate, C14 – Sodium Myristate, C16 – Sodium Palmitate, C18 – Sodium Stearate, C18 – Sodium Oleate), Silicones, Triglycerides oils/fats, (Lauric, Myristic, Palmitic, Linoleic, Palm oil, Palm kernel oil and Coconut oil). Raw Materials used for Cleansing Oily skin Frequent and effective cleansing is recommended for oily skin in order to keep the amount of sebum left on the skin to minimum thus avoids development of the spots and pimples. Skin toners/Masks. Ethanol, Witch Hazel, IPA, Antibacterial agents and Salicylic Acid. Back to question↑

18 C) Soap Advantages – inexpensive Produces a rich lather Rinses off easily Disadvantages -extremely alkaline(pH9-10) which can cause irritation, dryness and scaling. In hard water areas soaps can leave scum deposits on the washbasin Synthetic detergents Advantages-Mild to the skin No scum Can be formulated to match the skins pH Because they have a lower pH than soap they are more versatile in terms of fragrance, colour etc. Disadvantages The lather is not as good as soaps and not always rich and creamy. They can sometimes be quite difficult to rinse off Emulsion cleansing products AdvantagesThey can leave a layer of emollient oil on the skin to keep it smooth and supple. Much greater versatility and variation in product types Are easily adapted for different skin types DisadvantagesCan be more expensive Back to question↑

19 d) A consumer might expect the following from their skincare product: Protect their skin from UV damage or other environmental factors(Such as pollution, smoke etc.) Maintain levels of moisturisation by adding moisture directly to the skin, and by reducing loss of moisture(increasing barrier function, reducing TEWL) Repair the skin if damaged through sun exposure or ageing by stimulating collagen and elastin synthesis or increasing cell renewal/turnover providing the consumer with smoother skin. Back to question↑

20 QUESTION - Moisturisation Answer all parts:- a. Explain why moisturisers are recommended for dry skin, defining moisturisation, emollients and humectancy. (11 Marks) (11 Marks) b. Give examples of raw material types that are commonly used as:- i) Emollients ( 4 Marks) ( 4 Marks) ii) Humectants. ( 4 Marks) ( 4 Marks) c. Discuss some of the new functional materials that are now available as special additives for moisturising products. ( 6 Marks) ( 6 Marks)

21  a)Dry skin often manifests itself with patches of scaly or rough skin, and is usually white and flaky. This is because when the skin is dehydrated the corneocytes (skin’s scales) become rigid and more visible. This can be temporarily reversed by using a suitable moisturising cream. The moisturiser will increase the water content of the stratum corneum leaving the skin soft, smooth and supple. This is because the corneocytes have become more pliable and transparent – and therefore less visible. So moisturisation is a method whereby the water content of the stratum corneum is temporarily increased through the application of a skincare product.

22  Moisturisers are generally made up of a combination of emollients and humectants because they both work in different but complimentary ways.  Emollients, which are materials such as an oil or wax, often work through an occlusive action, which means they form a barrier to water loss and therefore reduce TEWL. This in turn increases the level of water in the SC. They also make the skin feel smoother very quickly as they have the ability to ‘fill in’ the cracks of the horny layer and ‘glue down’ the protruding corneocytes. Common examples of emollients are mineral oil and lanolin  Humectants exhibit hygroscopic behaviour, this means they draw in, and hold onto, large amounts of water. When applied to the skin the humectant reduces TEWL by holding onto the water in the skin in the intercellular lipid matrix found between the corneocytes in the SC. Common examples of humectants are propylene glycol and glycerine. Back to question↑

23 b) (i) Common emollients: Hydrocarbons Mineral Oil, petrolatum Lanolin Derivatives Lanolin Oil, lanolin Alcohol Fatty Acids Stearic acid, linoleic acid Fatty Alcohols cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, cetearyl alcohol Esters isopropyl myristate, Isopropyl palmitate, Jojoba oil Triglycerides Sesame oil, Sweet Almond oil, Cocoa Butter, sunflower oil Back to question↑

24 b (ii) Common Humectants Polyols – propylene glycol, Glycerin, sorbitols Amino Acids – Hydrolysed animal proteins, collagen, Milk protein, Silk amino acids Others such as Urea, Lecithin, Aloe Vera, Lactic acid Back to question↑

25 Special additives c) Hydroxyacids, such as Salycilic, lactic, malic etc affect the epidermal renewal process by reducing corneocyte adhesion in the basal layer of the stratum corneum, increasing cell turnover, providing smoother skin, reducing hyper pigmentation and they have a long term increase in collagen and elastin synthesis. Lactic and glycolic acids are most effective but you need to formulate carefully as they can be irritating and pH needs to be around 4.5

26  Vitamins – Vitamins can provide a good holistic approach to wellbeing, but have a functional use too. Vitamin E (dl alpha tocopherol) is a good antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Vitamin A derivatives can be used to treat sun damaged skin, as it can normalise epidermal activity and reduce hyper pigmentation. Vitamin C(ascorbic acid) is another natural antioxidant that regulates collagen synthesis. Vitamin C is quite unstable and can oxidize easily, nowadays the best delivery systems are microcapsules or liposomes or the more liposoluble forms of ascorbic acid such as hexyldecanoyl ascorbic acid.

27  Essential Fatty Acids(EFAs). EFAs such as linoleic and gamma linolenic acid are important building blocks of ceramides. When applied topically through a skin cream they can be incorporated in the SC structural lipids, improving the skins suppleness and flexibility.  Proteins and glycosaminoglycans. Proteins such as silk amino acids are very substantive to the skin, and leave it feeling soft and smooth. Hyaluronic acid absorbs considerable amounts of water, and although they can’t penetrate the SC they form a semi permeable layer on the surface and reduce TEWL.

28  Polysaccharides – derived form oats, wheat, bakers yeast – these can affect the skin in a number of ways ; reducing irritation caused by detergents, increasing cell turnover in the SC, stimulation of collagen synthesis.  Delivery systems – many new delivery systems have been developed over the years that can encapsulate usually unstable materials that are only exposed upon contact to the skin. Or liposomes that are very compatible with the skin and can penetrate into the SC and deliver their active content. Back to question↑


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