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1Presentation By Jaspreet Rekhi Introducing Sites: - www.rhombnet.com
2Semisolid Dosage Form Bulk Unit Ointments Suppositories Creams PastesGelsUnitSuppositoriesPessaries
3Semisolid Dosage Forms Pharmaceutical semisolid preparations :Topical products intended for application on the skin or accessible mucous membranes to provide localized and sometimes systemic effects at the site of application.The physical properties of the dosage form depend on various factors, includingSize of the dispersed particlesThe interfacial tension between the phasesPartition coefficient of the active ingredient between the phasesProduct rheology.
4The design of a semisolid preparation is based on its ability to adhere to the surface of application for a reasonable duration before they are washed or worn off. - brought about by a plastic rheologic behaviorMedicated- MajorityNon-medicated - protectants and lubricants.
5Ointments are composed mostly of fluid hydrocarbons meshed in a matrix of higher melting solid hydrocarbons.Creams are semisolid emulsion systems with an opaque appearance. Their consistency and rheologic properties are based on whether the emulsion is o/w or w/o and on the nature of the solid in the internal phase.Pastes are basically ointments into which a high percentage of insoluble solids has been added. Powders such as zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, starch and kaolin are incorporated in high concentrations into a preferably lipophilic greasy vehicle to form a paste-like mass.
6OINTMENTSOintments are composed mostly of fluid hydrocarbons meshed in a matrix of higher melting solid hydrocarbons.General Uses Of OintmentsActs as protective or protectant –serve as physical barrier to environmentActs as emollient –softens skin and makes it pliable3. Carrier of medicament - vehicle
7Hydrocarbon bases or Oleaginous bases Absorption bases The USP and NF Classify Ointment Bases into Four General GroupsHydrocarbon bases or Oleaginous basesAbsorption basesWater removable bases or Emulsion Ointment basesWater soluble bases
8Hydrocarbon bases Oleaginous bases Emollient effect Occlusive dressing Difficult to wash-off/removeIs greasy and can stain clothing.
9Hydrocarbon bases Petrolatum, USP Yellow petrolatum/petrolatum jelly/yellow soft paraffinVaseline (Chesebrough-Ponds/Unilever) (vahser-elaion)White petrolatum, USPDecolored petrolatum/white soft paraffin,White petroleum jelly/white vaselineYellow ointment, USPYellow wax (5%, w/w), petrolatum (95%)yellow hard paraffinWhite ointment, USPWhite wax/white petrolatumwhite hard paraffinMineral oil / liquid paraffin—These are useful as levigating agents to wet and incorporate solid substances
10Absorption basesThose that permit the incorporation of aqueous solution resulting in the formation of w/o emulsions--hydrophilic petrolatum, USPCholesterol 30 g, Stearyl alcohol 30 gWhite wax 80 g, White petrolatum 860 g--Aquaphor: A gentle healing ointment to help heal dry, cracked skin(Petrolatum. Other Ingredients: Mineral Oil, Ceresin, Lanolin Alcohol, Panthenol, Glycerin, Bisabolol)Those that are w/o emulsionHydrous lanolin: w/o emulsion containing 25% of waterlanolin USP: Anhydrous, contains < 0.25% of water, absorbs twice its weight in water, also called wool wax, wool fat, or wool grease, a greasy yellow substance from wool-bearing animals, acts as a skin ointment, water-proofing wax, and raw material (such as in shoe polish).
11Properties of absorption bases Absorption bases (anhydrous)EmollientOcclusiveAbsorbs waterGreasyW/O emulsionContains water, absorbs additional water
12Water-removable bases Water-washable bases, O/W emulsionHydrophilic ointment, USPMethylparaben gPropylparabenSDSPropylene alcoholStearyl alcoholWhite petrolatumWaterVanishing cream: o/w emulsion contains la large % of water and humectant. An excess of stearic acid in the formula helps to form a thin film when the water evaporates.
13Properties of water-removable bases Water-washable, easier to removeNon/less greasyCan be diluted with waterNon/less occlusiveBetter cosmetic appearanceBetter compliance
14Properties of water-soluble bases Water soluble and washableNon-greasyNon/less occlusiveLipid freeSynthetic base
15CreamSemisolid preparations containing one or more medicinal agents dissolved in either an o/w or w/o emulsion or in another type of water-washable base.Vanishing cream: o/w with high % of water and stearic acid.Cold cream: (an emulsion for softening and cleansing the skin): w/o, white wax, spermaceti, almond oil, sodium borate.
16PASTES Pastes maybe defined as ointments incorporating a high percentage of insoluble particulate solids, sometimesas much as or more than 50%.
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