Presentation on theme: "Kidney Dialysis and Transplants"— Presentation transcript:
1Kidney Dialysis and Transplants Objectives:*Describe the process of dialysis and explain how it controls the concentration of glucose, urea and protein in the blood**Describe the working of a kidney dialysis machine***Describe the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplant compared with dialysis
2The three ways homeostasis is maintained are Thermoregulation by …… The three ways homeostasis is maintained are Thermoregulation by ……. Osmoregulation by…….. Blood glucose regulation by ……
3The working kidney Filters 150L of blood per day Entire blood within the body filtered once every 45 minutesProduces 1.5 – 2 L urine per day
4Problems with the kidneys Kidney stonesHigh salt and minerals in your diet can lead to stones precipitating outExtremely painfulHave to be excreted from the body in the urineRenal damage / failureThe kidney is no longer able to filter the blood effectivelyPlasma not properly reabsorbedProteins and cells pass through bowman’s capsulePresence of protein in urine is a sign of kidney failure
5Living without kidneys A person can survive with only 1 kidneyHowever, no working kidneys deathHow do we know kidney is not working?Options:DialysisTransplantation
8DialysisThe blood vessels in the arm are connected to a dialysis machine.In the dialysis machine a person’s blood flows between partially permeable membranes.The dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of useful substances as the blood.This ensures that glucose and useful mineral ions are not lost.There is a high concentration of urea in the person’s blood, and no urea in the dialysis fluid.There is a concentration gradient of urea between the blood and the dialysis fluid.Urea passes out from the blood into the dialysis fluid by diffusion.Treatment by dialysis restores the concentrations of dissolved substances in the blood to normal levels.It has to be carried out at regular intervals.
10TransplantationOrgan removed from either dead person or living person if not an essential organInserted and connected to patientDamaged organs sometimes removedDonor organs not always connected into position of old organ
13No major surgery needed. No waiting lists – it prevents people dying. AdvantagesDisadvantagesDialysisNo major surgery needed. No waiting lists – it prevents people dying.Diet needs to be controlled carefully. Restricts normal life – it takes about 8 hours, several times a week.Dialysis cannot replace all the functions of a kidneyKidney transplantNo need for dialysis. Transplant can replace all the functions of a kidney The recipient can lead a relatively normal life. Diet does not need to be controlled.Major surgery has many risks. Difficulty of finding suitable donor as donor’s and recipient’s blood and tissue types need matching Possibility of tissue rejection. Immunosuppresant drugs need to be taken for life. This means they are prone to certain infections and suffer longer from those infections. Patient need bone marrow radiation to stop white blood cell production The donated kidney only lasts for about 9 years. Some religious groups do not agree with organ donation.