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The Excretory System.  Proper functioning kidneys are essential for the body to maintain equilibrium  Sometimes diseases/disorders impair the function.

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Presentation on theme: "The Excretory System.  Proper functioning kidneys are essential for the body to maintain equilibrium  Sometimes diseases/disorders impair the function."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Excretory System

2  Proper functioning kidneys are essential for the body to maintain equilibrium  Sometimes diseases/disorders impair the function of the kidneys  Many kidney disorders can be diagnosed by analyzing a blood and urine sample

3  Use pages to describe the cause and effect of the following diseases/ disorders: 1. Diabetes Mellitus 2. Diabetes Insipidus 3. Bright’s Disease 4. Kidney Stones

4  Caused by:  inadequate insulin secretion from islet cells  The result is:  high glucose levels in blood  high glucose levels in the filtrate causes less re- absorption of H 2 0  Symptom:  large volumes of sugary urine are voided

5  Caused by:  destruction of hypothalamus cells, tumor or of the nerves that lead to the pituitary gland  The result is:  No ADH is released  Symptom:  large volumes of dilute urine are voided

6  Many causes (E.g. hypertension )  The result:  Blood vessels in the glomerulus become destroyed (or inflamed)  Glomerulus becomes permeable to plasma proteins (and blood cells) … drawing H 2 O into the nephron You can’t reabsorb these large solutes  Symptom:  Void large volumes of urine which contains proteins or blood cells

7  are caused by the precipitation of mineral solutes from the blood  There are two types:  Acidic  Alkaline  They can lodge in the renal pelvis or urethra tarring tissues

8  A type of technology that uses shock waves to break up kidney stones into smaller pieces  These smaller stones can then be voided  Note: If the stones are too big = surgery

9  Is needed for people whose kidneys no longer function  There are two types of Dialysis  Hemodialysis  Peritoneal dialysis  the best option is a kidney transplant

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11  A dialysis machine mimics the action of the nephron  The only function that a dialysis machine can not do is ACTIVE TRANSPORT!  A person has a surgical procedure to connect the circulatory system to the machine  Blood is pumped through a series of tubes

12  One of these tubes enter the machine and is bathed in dialysis fluid

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14  dialysis tubing is semipermeable…. large solutes won’t pass through but small solutes can (glucose, urea, H +, uric acid, K +, electrolytes etc.)

15  Glucose and a mixture of salts sets up a concentration gradient.  urea diffuses from the tube into the dialysis fluid  the “filtered” blood is returned to the body  By continually flushing this fluid and replacing it… urea is removed along with other wastes

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17  Is done through the lining of the abdominal cavity called the peritoneal membrane  A catheter is inserted in the abdomen and 2L of Dialysate (a solution) is pumped into the abdominal cavity  The Dialysate remains in the abdomen cavity for 4 to 6 hours (The membranes in the cavity filter wastes )

18  Wastes diffuse into the fluid  The fluid is then drained using the catheter.  The process is repeated until the blood is clean.

19  Involves placing a new kidney and the ureter near the groin  Old kidneys are not usually removed  Sometimes dialysis will be needed until the new kidney can fully function

20  Read: Xenotransplants Page 391  Write: What are the pros and cons of this type of technology

21  Page 392, #’s 1-10  Page 396, #’s 1-21


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