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Www.enfield.gov.uk Striving for excellence Answering KS4 GCSE Science Extended prose 6 mark questions Jason Harding - Enfield Science Consultant Penny.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.enfield.gov.uk Striving for excellence Answering KS4 GCSE Science Extended prose 6 mark questions Jason Harding - Enfield Science Consultant Penny."— Presentation transcript:

1 www.enfield.gov.uk Striving for excellence Answering KS4 GCSE Science Extended prose 6 mark questions Jason Harding - Enfield Science Consultant Penny Travers – Enfield EMA Consultant

2 The Project – talking into reading into writing Work with a Yr10 teacher to help improve pupil responses to 6 mark exam questions. Triple Science group currently learning about the Kidney. Pupils range from insecure level 5 to secure level 7.

3 QWC and levels marking Candidates are required to produce extended written material in English, and will be assessed on the quality of their written communication as well as the standard of the scientific response. Candidates are required to: use good English organise information clearly use specialist vocabulary where appropriate Level 3 detailed: knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and examples answer is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately the answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. Taken from AQA Science 2011 sample material

4 Strategies Lesson 1 Highlighting the importance and understanding of command words. Focusing on exam questions – explanation and annotation. Interpreting mark schemes – Finding out what the examiner wants. Lesson 2 Deconstructing model answers. Improving reading strategies. Jointly constructing 6 mark answers. Speaking as an expert. Lesson 3 Defining the conventions for 6 mark questions. Independent construction – answering 6 mark questions.

5 Setting the context: Q1 Kidney (6 mark question) In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. A person with kidney disease could be treated either by using a dialysis machine or by a kidney transplant operation. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of these two methods of treatment. Use your knowledge and understanding of the two methods in your answer. Taken from AQA Science 2011 sample material

6 Q1 Kidney (Mark Scheme)1/2 Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response. 0 marks Level 1 (1-2 marks) Level 2 (3-4 marks) Level 3 (5-6 marks) No relevant content. There is a brief description of the two methods of treatment. There is at least one disadvantage or advantage from the examples given. There is a scientific comparison of the two methods of treatment, including at least one advantage and one disadvantage but there is a lack of clarity and detail. There is a clear and detailed scientific comparison between the two methods of treatment, including at least two advantages and two disadvantages. Taken from AQA Science 2011 sample material

7 Q1 Kidney (Mark Scheme) 2/2 Examples of biology points made in the response Advantages of transplant over dialysis: no build-up of toxins/keeps blood concentration constant prevent high blood pressure don’t need restricted diet/restricted fluid intake or time wasted on dialysis infection may result from dialysis with dialysis, blood may not clot properly due to anti-clotting drugs cost issues (i.e. transplant cheaper) Disadvantages of transplant over dialysis: rejection/problem finding tissue match use of immuno-suppressant drugs leading to other infections dangers during operation Taken from AQA Science 2011 sample material

8 Deconstructing the text: Inside Mr Harding’s brain1/2 In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Answer must flow and make sense. Spelling and punctuation What words do I need? A person with kidney disease could be treated either by using a dialysis machine or by a kidney transplant operation. What’s good/bad… …about dialysis and transplantation. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of these two methods of treatment. What do you know about how dialysis and transplants work? Use your knowledge and understanding of the two methods in your answer.

9 Inside Mr Harding’s brain2/2 Answer structure 1 mark:describe dialysis 1 mark:describe transplantation 2 marks:What’s good about dialysis (two facts)? What’s bad about dialysis (two facts)? 2 marks:What’s good about transplantation (two facts)? What’s bad about transplantation (two facts)? Key terms for answer – filtration, diffusion, disease, infection, immuno-suppression, rejection.

10 Annotating questions Pupils were reluctant to annotate questions and write plans for their answers. Practice materials were produced to specifically address this issue.

11 Why does this get 6 marks? Scientific knowledge Dialysis filters blood to restore its concentration levels via diffusion. Transplantation replaces a diseased kidney with a healthy one. Dialysis is available to all and is drug free. However, it is expensive and time consuming and can lead to secondary infections. Transplantation allows the patient to lead a normal life free from dietary restrictions. It is cheaper than dialysis and does not cause secondary issues. Unfortunately, patients have to take immuno-suppressant drugs to stop organ rejection. All operations, including transplants, carry a risk of complication. Dialysis method Transplantation method Transplantation 2 advantages Dialysis 2 advantages Dialysis 3 disadvantages Transplantation 2 more advantages Transplantation 2 disadvantages

12 Why does this get 6 marks? Literacy/QWC Dialysis filters blood to restore its concentration levels via diffusion. Transplantation replaces a diseased kidney with a healthy one. Dialysis is available to all and is drug free. However, it is expensive and time consuming and can lead to secondary infections. Transplantation allows the patient to lead a normal life free from dietary restrictions. It is cheaper than dialysis and does not cause secondary issues. Unfortunately, patients have to take immuno- suppressant drugs to stop organ rejection. All operations, including transplants, carry a risk of complication. It is a well structured explanation text starting with topic sentences giving definitions. It is lexically dense including good use of nominalisation: transplantation infections rejection complication It is coherent and cohesive (i.e. the text ‘hangs together well’); accurate use is made of the pronoun ‘it’ to refer back to the subject. Advantages and disadvantages are well expressed; there is effective use of a contrasting connective (however).

13 Reading around the topic – Catalyst

14

15 Reading around the topic - Guardian

16 Reading around the topic - Metro

17 Q2 – Joint Construction Pupils worked in groups to construct an answer to a 6 mark question. Groups of pupils presented their answers using a visualiser.

18 Q3 Kidney (6 mark question) Explain how dialysis treatment preserves the concentration of dissolved substances in the blood and removes urea. Read through the two responses to Q3 consult the mark scheme, provide a mark and give some feedback. In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate.

19 Q3 Kidney (Mark Scheme)1/2 Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response. 0 marks Level 1 (1-2 marks) Level 2 (3-4 marks) Level 3 (5-6 marks) No relevant content. There is a brief explanation of how a dialysis machine works. There is a scientific explanation of how blood substances and concentration levels facilitate dialysis. There is a clear and detailed explanation of how the mechanism of diffusion is integral to the dialysis process.

20 Q3 Kidney (Mark Scheme)2/2 Examples of biology points made in the response In a dialysis machine: recipient’s blood flows through a filter tubing made of semi-permeable membrane dialysis fluid is the same concentration as dissolved blood substances e.g. blood, glucose and mineral ions this ensure they do not diffuse through the membrane urea passes through to the dialysis fluid because of differences in concentration, i.e. blood concentration high. Dialysis fluid concentration low treatment must be carried out regularly

21 How many marks would you give this answer? Justify your mark. Dialysis is used to help people whose kidneys are failing or have failed by filtering the blood. There is a very long waiting list for a kidney transplant operation which can cure a person of kidney disease and allow them to live a normal life where they are able to eat and drink anything they want to, anytime they like. They still need to be careful as over- eating and drinking can lead to obesity which is very bad for your health and which could lead to kidney disease. Dialysis is very time-consuming and a patient has to spend a lot of time in hospital on a dialysis machine.

22 What about this one? Justify your mark A dialysis patient’s blood must be regularly passed through a dialysis machine. The blood comes into close contact with dialysis fluid as it flows through semi-permeable tubing. Dialysis fluid consists of dissolved glucose and mineral ions which are at the same level of concentration as the patient’s blood. As the two liquids come into close contact there is no diffusion of these dissolved substance because their concentration levels are equal. However, the patient’s blood contains high concentrations of urea, not present in the dialysis fluid. The urea diffuses through the membrane out of the blood and into the dialysis fluid where it is in low concentration.

23 Preparing for independent construction - Mode Continuum informalformal Taken from Language in Learning Across the Curriculum (LILAC) www.unlockingtheworld.com

24 Preparing for independent construction - Talking as an expert

25 Preparing for independent construction – Defining the conventions for 6 marks In groups list the features of an extended prose science answer. Be prepared to contribute to a list of success criteria.

26 Q5 Kidney (6 mark question) A patient suffering from kidney disease may have to undergo dialysis. Describe how dialysis works and explain the advantages and disadvantages of the process. In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate.

27 Q5 Kidney (Mark Scheme)1/2 Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response. 0 marks Level 1 (1-2 marks) Level 2 (3-4 marks) Level 3 (5-6 marks) No relevant content. There is a brief description of dialysis. There is at least one advantage or disadvantage given. There is a scientific description of dialysis. At least one advantage and disadvantage is given but the is a lack of clarity. There is a clear and detailed scientific description of dialysis. At least two advantages and disadvantages are given.

28 Q5 Kidney (Mark Scheme)2/2 Examples of biology points made in the response Dialysis process: Dialysis restores dissolved blood substance concentrations to normal levels Blood flows between partially permeable membranes Dialysis fluid is the same concentration as useful dissolved blood substances Glucose and mineral ions are retained while urea diffuses in to the dialysis fluid Dialysis advantages: Available to all No immuno suppressant drugs needed No surgery required No chance of rejection occurring Dialysis disadvantages: Expensive Time Consuming Restricted diet required Regular treatments needed

29 Independent Construction – pupils’ answers to a 6 mark question In lesson 1 all three pupils had provided answers worthy of level 1 from the grade descriptor and all had gained 1 mark for their work.

30 Next steps… Continue to use the teaching and learning cycle for writing to support learning objectives that include extended prose when teaching scientific concept or processes. Establish a culture of question annotation and planning answers with the class. Empower pupils to feel confident in using success criteria for GCSE extended prose and structured answer questions. Show pupils how to signal to examiners where key points in an answer are.


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