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AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd B3 2 Summary Transporting substances around the body Chapter review
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How does your circulatory system work? Three elements: blood vessels, heart and blood. Three types of blood vessels: veins, arteries and capillaries. Heart acts as a pump, moving blood around the body. Double circulation: – heart to lungs to heart. – heart to body to heart.
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How does your blood transport substances? Blood consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Plasma is a yellow liquid. Plasma transports all of the blood cells, carbon dioxide, urea, soluble products of digestion, e.g. glucose. Red blood cells carry oxygen. Photo: Photodisc 59 (NT)
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How are red blood cells adapted to carry oxygen? Large numbers – five million per 1 mm 3. Biconcave discs for increased surface area. Packed full of haemoglobin – red pigment that can carry oxygen. No nucleus – makes more space for haemoglobin.
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How does exercise affect your body? Muscles use oxygen for aerobic respiration, to provide energy as glucose is broken down. When you exercise, muscles work – they need more oxygen. Heart rate increases. You breathe more deeply. More oxygen in, more carbon dioxide out.
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd What is an oxygen debt? Lots of exercise causes muscle fatigue. The body switches to anaerobic respiration – not as efficient, so it gives less energy. Lactic acid is produced. When exercise is over, the body has to break down lactic acid using oxygen. Demand for oxygen stays high until lactic acid is all gone – oxygen needed is oxygen debt. Higher Photo: Photodisc 51 (NT)
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd Why are your kidneys so important? Important for homeostasis. Remove urea from blood. Remove excess water from blood or conserve water. Remove excess mineral ions from blood or conserve mineral ions. Filter blood and reabsorb everything needed, e.g. glucose, by selective reabsorption. Produce urine.
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd What is kidney dialysis? Kidney failure means death, unless the function of the kidneys is replaced. Dialysis replaces kidney function – filters and cleans blood. Depends on diffusion along concentration gradients from blood to dialysis fluid. Photo: SPL BSIP/Beranger
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd What is a kidney transplant? Failed kidneys replaced by single healthy kidney from donor. Donor usually dead, but may be living. To prevent rejection by the immune system: – The kidney is as close a tissue match as possible. – The recipient takes immunosuppressant drugs for life.
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd Which is best – dialysis or transplant? Dialysis: Machines usually available. No problems with tissue matching. Has to happen at least twice a week for life. Expensive long-term. Have to watch diet. Transplant: No special diet. No sessions of dialysis. Relatively inexpensive, particularly after surgery. Need donor, often not available. Need tissue match. Have to take immunosuppressant drugs for life. Surgery every ten years or so.
The kidneys and Water regulation Starter: name all the ways in which you put water into your body today. How can you lose water? What is the kidneys role.
1 of 24© Boardworks Ltd 2009 Urine for a Great Time!!!
Circulatory System. Functions of the Circulatory System Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells in the body Blood picks up carbon dioxide and.
Respiration is a chemical process in which energy is released from food substances. Respiration is a series of actions in which energy is released.
HOMEOSTASIS The maintenance of a constant internal environment. The main body conditions we have to maintain are: 1.Water content/balance 2.Ion content/balance.
Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment Keeping warm 1.Vasoconstriction- blood vessels _______ and move away from ______ of skin.
Kidney Dialysis and Transplants Objectives: *Describe the process of dialysis and explain how it controls the concentration of glucose, urea and protein.
B3 REVISION – CHAPTER 1 – EXCHANGE OF MATERIALS KEY WORDS: Partially permeable Osmosis Active transport Solute Exchange surface Ventilated Gaseous exchange.
Kidney. Learning Objectives 1.To understand why the kidneys are so important. 2.To know how your kidneys work. 3.To know how sugar and dissolved ions.
Oxygen Pathway. To know the pathway of oxygen through the circulatory system.
PP 3 Excretion in Humans. Define excretion the removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells.
AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd B3 1 Summary Exchange of materials Chapter review.
© Boardworks Ltd of 40 KS4 Biology What is Blood?
Chapter 16 Lesson 1. Did You Know All the cells in your body need to receive oxygen and nourishment. The cells also need to have carbon dioxide and waste.
The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. Learning Goals By the end of this unit you should be able to: Identify and describe the main functions of the.
AQA B3 Topic 3 Homeostasis. Removal of waste & water control (osmoregulation) Key words: Excretion – the removal of waste products from the body eg. carbon.
Requirements Galen/Harvey extension Playdough model RBC sphygmomanometers.
Active Transport Used to move substances from low to high concentration (against a concentration gradient) it requires energy so cells involved often have.
Cardiovascular System Noadswood Science, Cardiovascular System To know the pathway of oxygen through the circulatory system Wednesday, August 12,
The Circulatory System. Warm Up Write down three things you can do to keep your heart healthy Write down three things you can do to keep your heart healthy.
Structure of The Kidney. Objectives 1)Define the term excretion and explain the importance of removing waste material from the body 2)Describe the process.
Blood is a tissue that transports substances around the body Blood carries oxygen and glucose to the cells of the body and transports waste and carbon.
The Excretory System. Excretion Learning Objectives OB20 Understand the structure and function of the urinary system: the bladder, renal artery, renal.
Elimination of Wastes Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogenous Wastes.
Excretion Kabilan Mahesan. Define Excretion Excretion is any process that removes the body of toxic substances, metabolic waste products and excess ions.
Circulatory System & Diet D. Crowley, Circulatory System & Diet To know how a healthy circulatory system works, and how a poor diet can affect it.
Quiz Time!. What is the pulse rate a measure of?
Caledonia Science. the system that circulates blood and lymph through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels, . The is the muscle that.
Muscle Energy. ATP High Energy molecule Used for muscle movement (and many other things.
Active Transport Active Transport Exchange in the Lungs.
The Circulatory System - Also known as the Cardiovascular system. Parts: 1. Heart 2. Blood 3. Blood Vessels.
Excretory System Honors Biology Powerpoint #5. Excretory System Function: The excretory system eliminates nonsolid wastes from the body. Nonsolid wastes.
Components of Blood Plasma- Liquid component of blood Red Blood Cells- Carry Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Throughout the body. Contain a molecule called hemoglobin.
Li I know the function, components as well as structure of the circulatory system. I can -Define what the circulatory system is. -I can name the major.
1 CIRCULATORY & EXCRETORY SYSTEMS UNIT 3 – PART 1.
© Boardworks Ltd of 36 KS4 Biology Respiration.
Excretion The removal from the body of the waste products of metabolism Includes removal through the lungs, skin, urinary system and kidney Done through.
+ Circulatory System. + Do Now Why is it important for your heart to continue beating even when you’re sleeping? What does your body need? What are some.
Blood and the Circulatory System. Objectives Describe the functions of components of the blood and name the different blood vessels. Explain.
Dialysis Requirements Demonstration of dialysis (see teacher guide in nelson thornes) Visking tubing demo – Red/orange sand (erythrocytes) yellow.
What does the kidney do? What happens to everything that goes through your kidneys ? How can kidney disease be treated? The kidney.
Active Transport- requires energy to transport molecules from low to a high concentration Human Kidney Vital for homeostasis Works by filtering everything.
© Boardworks Ltd of 36 Contents Respiration Anaerobic respiration Summary activities Releasing energy Rate of respiration Aerobic respiration.
S. MORRIS 2006 This Powerpoint is hosted on Please visit for 100’s more free powerpoints.
B2 Topic 3 -The structure of the Heart -Blood -The Circulatory System - Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration In past foundation papers from 2011 to 2015,
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