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AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd B3 2 Summary Transporting substances around the body Chapter review
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How does your circulatory system work? Three elements: blood vessels, heart and blood. Three types of blood vessels: veins, arteries and capillaries. Heart acts as a pump, moving blood around the body. Double circulation: – heart to lungs to heart. – heart to body to heart.
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How does your blood transport substances? Blood consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Plasma is a yellow liquid. Plasma transports all of the blood cells, carbon dioxide, urea, soluble products of digestion, e.g. glucose. Red blood cells carry oxygen. Photo: Photodisc 59 (NT)
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How are red blood cells adapted to carry oxygen? Large numbers – five million per 1 mm 3. Biconcave discs for increased surface area. Packed full of haemoglobin – red pigment that can carry oxygen. No nucleus – makes more space for haemoglobin.
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd How does exercise affect your body? Muscles use oxygen for aerobic respiration, to provide energy as glucose is broken down. When you exercise, muscles work – they need more oxygen. Heart rate increases. You breathe more deeply. More oxygen in, more carbon dioxide out.
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd What is an oxygen debt? Lots of exercise causes muscle fatigue. The body switches to anaerobic respiration – not as efficient, so it gives less energy. Lactic acid is produced. When exercise is over, the body has to break down lactic acid using oxygen. Demand for oxygen stays high until lactic acid is all gone – oxygen needed is oxygen debt. Higher Photo: Photodisc 51 (NT)
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd Why are your kidneys so important? Important for homeostasis. Remove urea from blood. Remove excess water from blood or conserve water. Remove excess mineral ions from blood or conserve mineral ions. Filter blood and reabsorb everything needed, e.g. glucose, by selective reabsorption. Produce urine.
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd What is kidney dialysis? Kidney failure means death, unless the function of the kidneys is replaced. Dialysis replaces kidney function – filters and cleans blood. Depends on diffusion along concentration gradients from blood to dialysis fluid. Photo: SPL BSIP/Beranger
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd What is a kidney transplant? Failed kidneys replaced by single healthy kidney from donor. Donor usually dead, but may be living. To prevent rejection by the immune system: – The kidney is as close a tissue match as possible. – The recipient takes immunosuppressant drugs for life.
B3 2 Summary AQA Science © Nelson Thornes Ltd Which is best – dialysis or transplant? Dialysis: Machines usually available. No problems with tissue matching. Has to happen at least twice a week for life. Expensive long-term. Have to watch diet. Transplant: No special diet. No sessions of dialysis. Relatively inexpensive, particularly after surgery. Need donor, often not available. Need tissue match. Have to take immunosuppressant drugs for life. Surgery every ten years or so.
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