2 Removal of waste & water control (osmoregulation) Key words: Excretion – the removal of waste products from the body eg. carbon dioxide & urea Homeostasis – the maintaining of a constant internal environmentWaste products have to be removed from the body so levels do not become toxic.Internal conditions have to be kept within a narrow range of values so the cells can function properly. This is homeostasis.Examples of homeostasis:removal of waste productswater & ion concentrationbody temperature (thermoregulation)blood glucose levelsWaste productWhy is it produced?How is it removed?Carbon dioxideProduced through aerobic respirationThrough the lungs when we breathe out (exhale)UreaProduced in the liver when excess amino acids are broken downThe kidneys remove it from the blood and make urine – which is temporarily stored in the bladderWhat happens if the water or ion content is wrong?Too much water may & leave the cells damaging them.Ions are lost from the body via - sweating & urineIons are gained via – eating & drinking
3 Water control – the kidney Key words: Urea – produced from the breakdown of amino acids – toxic Urine – mixture of water, excess ions and urea created in the kidney & stored in the bladder Selective reabsorption – when the kidney takes back different amounts of water and ions into the blood depending on the bodys’ demand for themA healthy kidney produces urine by:Filtering the blood – glucose, amino acids, mineral ions, urea & water move from the blood to kidney tubles by diffusion. Proteins & red blood cells are too large to be filtered out the blood.Reabsorbtion- all the sugar via active transportSelective reabsorbtion - the dissolved ions needed by the body via active transportSelective reabsorbtion - as much water as the body needs is selectively reabsorbed by osmosisReleasing urea, excess ions and water as urineWater is lost from the body viaExhalingSweatingUrineWater is gained viaDrinkingEatingLittle drunk & hot day = little dark yellow, concentrated urineLots drunk & cool day = lots of dilute, almost colourless urine.
4 Kidney failure - dialysis If a persons kidney stops working properly there are 2 options: 1) Dialysis 2) Kidney transplantDialysisTreatment by dialysis restores the concentrations of dissolved substances in the blood to normal levels and has to be carried out at regular intervals.In a dialysis machine a person’s blood flows between partially permeable membranes.The dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of useful substances as the blood.This ensures that glucose and useful mineral ions are not lost.Urea passes out from the blood into the dialysis fluid.AdvantagesAvailable to all kidney patients (no shortage)No need for immune-suppressant drugsDisadvantagesPatient must limit their salt and protein intake between dialysis sessionsExpensive for the NHSRegular dialysis sessions (8hrs) – impacts on the patient’s lifestyle
5 Kidney failure – kidney transplant Key words: Antigen – proteins on the surface of cells which identify a cell as ‘self’ or foreign to the body Antibody - protein used in the immune response to fight off foreign cellsKidney transplantA diseases kidney is replaced by a healthy donor kidney.Organ rejection is a problem as the antigens on the surface of the donor kidney are recognised by the immune system as foreign and can be attacked by the patients antibodiesTo reduce the chances of this happening 2 precautions are taken:Immune-suppressant drugs are giveA donor kidney with a similar ‘tissue type’ is usedDisadvantagesMust take immune-suppressant drugs which increase the risk of infectionShortage of organ donorsKidney only lasts 8-9 years on averageAny operation carries risksAdvantagesPatients can lead a more normal life without having to watch what they eat and drinkCheaper for the NHS overall
6 Temperature control - thermoregulation Body temperature is monitored and controlled by the thermoregulatory centre in the brain. This centre has receptors which are sensitive to the temperature of the blood. Receptors in the skin also send impulses to the thermoregulatory centre about the skin temperature.Consequences of your core body temperature raising too high:Enzymes are denatured so can no longer catalyse reactions in your cells.Consequences of your core body temperature dropping too low:Enzyme reaction rate is slowed.Not enough energy is released & cells begin to die
7 Temperature control - thermoregulation Responses to decreased body temperature:Vasoconstriction - narrowing of blood vessels in the skin. Blood flow through the skin is reduced, therefore heat loss is decreased. Body temperature increases.2. Shivering - tiny muscles under the skin contracting and relaxing very quickly. The muscle cells release heat.3. Body hair rises away from the skin, trapping a layer of air next to it, insulating the body. Erector muscles contracting.Increased body temperatureResponses to increased body temperature:Vasodilatation - widening of blood vessels. Blood flow is increased and more heat is lost through the skin. Nerve impulses pass along the nerves from the thermoregulatory centre to the muscles in the walls of blood cells, stimulating contraction and causing them to narrow. When the muscles relax the blood vessels widen.2. Sweat is produced. Heat from the body evaporates the water in sweat. when it is hot more water is lost so more has to be taken in.3. Body hair lies flat against the skin, preventing air becoming trapped next to it.Decreased body temperature
8 Blood glucose controlBlood glucose concentration is controlled by the release of hormones from the pancreasInsulinHormone released from the pancreas when blood glucose levels have increased.Allows glucose to move from the blood to the cells where it is used or stored as glycogen in the liver.GlycogenHormone released from the pancreas when blood glucose levels fall.Causes glycogen stored in the liver to be converted into glucose and released into the blood
9 Problems with blood glucose control - diabetes Diabetes is a disease where a persons blood glucose concentrations are not controlled properly because of either a lack of insulin (type 1) or cells not responding to insulin (type 2)Type 1 DiabetesPancreas does NOT produce any or enough insulinInject insulin daily (into the fat layer beneath the skin) traditionally this was from pigs, but now we use genetically engineered human insulin as it is more effective.Exercise and diet are used to help lower blood glucose levels tooType 2 DiabetesCells respond less well to insulin (they become resistant)Risk factors of developing it are:High-fat dietsLack of exerciseGetting olderObesityControl by changes in diet and exercise eg.eating a balanced diet with fewer carbohydratesLosing weightRegular exercise