Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12: Molecular Genetics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 12: Molecular Genetics 12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material12.2 Replication of DNA12.3 DNA, RNA, and Protein12.4 Gene Regulation and Mutation
2 12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material Main idea: The discovery that DNA is the genetic code involved many experiments.Objectives:Summarize the experiments leading to the discovery of DNA as the genetic materialDiagram and label the basic structure of DNADescribe the basic structure of eukaryotic chromosomeReview VocabularyNucleic acid: complex biomolecule that stores cellular information in the form of a codeVocabularyDouble helixnucleosome
3 Discovery of the Genetic Material Once Mendel’s work was rediscovered in the 1900’s, scientists began to search for the molecule involved in inheritanceScientists knew that the genetic information was carried on the chromosomes in eukaryotic cells, and the two main components of chromosomes are DNA and protein.
4 GriffithIn 1928, Fredrick Griffith performed the first major experiment that led to the discovery of DNA as the genetic materialGriffith studied two strains of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniaeHe found that one strain could be transformed, or changed, into the other formOf the two strains he studied, one had a sugar coat and one did not.Coated strain caused pneumonia – Smooth (S) strainNoncoated strain does not cause pneumonia – Rough (R) strain; without the coat, colonies have rough edges
5 Griffith’s Experiment This experiment set the stage for the search to identify the transforming substance.
6 AveryIn 1931, Oswald Avery identified the molecule that transformed the R strain of bacteria into the S strain.He isolated different macromolecules, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids from killed S cells.Then he exposed live R cells to the macromolecules separately.When the live R cells were exposed to the S strain DNA, they were transformed into S cells.Avery concluded that when the S cells in Griffith’s experiment were killed, DNA was released.Some of the R bacteria incorporated this DNA into their cells, and this changed the bacteria into S cells.Avery’s conclusions not widely accepted; scientists continued to question whether the transforming material was DNA or proteins.
7 Hershey and ChaseIn 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase provided definitive evidence that DNA is the transforming factor.They performed experiments using bacteriophages (viruses that attack bacteria) and radioactive labelingThey concluded that the viral DNA was injected into the cell and provided the genetic information needed to produce new viruses.
8 Summary of Hershey-Chase Results Hershey and ChaseSummary of Hershey-Chase ResultsGroup 1 : DNA is radioactive(Viruses labeled with 32P)Group 2: Protein is radioactive(Viruses labeled with 35S)Infected BacteriaLiquid with VirusesLabeled viral DNA (32P) found in the bacteriaViral replication occurredNew viruses contained (32P)No labeled DNANo viral replicationNo labeled viral proteins (35S)New viruses did not have a labelLabeled proteins found
9 DNA StructureHershey & Chase’s experiment insured confidence in scientists that DNA was the genetic material, but they questioned how nucleotides came together to form DNA and how DNA could communicate information.Nucleotides basic structure was determined by P.A. Levine in the 1920’s.
10 NucleotidesConsist of a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous baseDNA –sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate group, and nitrogenous base (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, or Thymine).RNA –sugar (ribose), phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, or Uracil).
11 Chargaff Data published in 1955. Chargaff found that the amounts of guanine nearly equals the amount of cytosine, and the amount of adenine nearly equals the amount of thymine within a speciesCharfaff’s rule:C = G and T = A
12 The Structure Question Four scientists joined the search for the DNA structure and the meaning and importance of Chargaff’s rule became quite clear.Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins used X-ray diffraction (aiming X-rays at a DNA molecule) to produce photo 51.Photo 51 indicated that DNA was a double helix or a twisted ladder shape, formed by two strands of nucleotides twisted around each otherJames Watson and Francis Crick used Franklin and Wilkin’s data and Chargaff’s data to create the double helix model
13 Watson and Crick’s DNA Model Two outside strands consist of alternating deoxyribose and phosphateCytosine and guanine bases pair to each other by three hydrogen bondsThymine and adenine bases pair to each other by two hydrogen bonds
14 DNA Structure DNA often is compared to a twisted ladder. Rails of the ladder are represented by the alternating deoxyribose and phosphate.The pairs of bases (cytosine–guanine or thymine–adenine) form the steps.Purine bases equal the number pyrimidine basesAdenine and guanine are purines and cytosine and thymine are pyramidinesC=G and A=T; therefore C + T = G + AComplementary base pairing is used to describe the precise pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases between strands of nucleic acids.It is the characteristics of DNA replication through which the parent strand can determine the sequence of a new strand.
15 DNA OrientationCarbon molecules can be numbered in organic molecules, the orientation of the numbered carbons in the sugar molecules of each strand is depicted above.On the top rail, the strand is said to be oriented 5′ to 3′.The strand on the bottom runs in the opposite direction and is oriented 3′ to 5′.The orientation of the two strands are called antiparallel.
16 Chromosome StructureIn prokaryotes, DNA molecules are contained in cytoplasm and consists mainly of a ring of DNA and associated proteins.Eukaryotic DNA is organized in individual chromosomes.DNA is tightly coiled around a group of beadlike proteins called histones.The phosphate groups in DNA create a negative charge, which attracts the DNA to the positively charged histone proteins and forms a nucleosome.The nucleosomes then group together into chromatin fibers, which supercoil to make up the DNA structure recognized as a chromosome.
17 12.2 Replication of DNAMain idea: DNA replicates by making a strand that is complementary to each original strand.Objectives:Summarize the role of the enzymes involved in the replication of DNA.Explain how leading and lagging strands are synthesized differently.Review VocabularyTemplate: a molecule of DNA that is a pattern for synthesis of a new DNA moleculeNew VocabularySemiconservative replicationDNA polymeraseOkazaki fragments
18 Semiconservative Replication Parental strands of DNA separate, serve as templates, and produce DNA molecules that have one strand of parental DNA and one strand of new DNA.
19 Semiconservative Replication Occurs in three main stages: Unwinding, Base pairing & JoiningUnwindingDNA helicase, an enzyme, is responsible for unwinding and unzipping the double helix.RNA primase adds a short segment of RNA, called an RNA primer, on each DNA strand.Base pairingDNA polymerase continues adding appropriate nucleotides to the chain by adding to the 3′ end of the new DNA strand.Two strands made in slightly different manner.
20 Base PairingOne strand is called the leading strand and is elongated as the DNA unwinds; built continuously by addition of nucleotides to the 3’ end.The other strand, the lagging strand, elongates away from the replication fork.It is synthesized discontinuously into small segments, called Okazaki fragments, by the DNA polymerase in the 3’ to 5’ direction.DNA ligase later binds these fragments together.Because one strand is synthesized continuously and the other discontinuously, DNA replication is said to be semicontinuous as well as semiconservative.
21 JoiningDNA polymerase removes the RNA primer and fills in the place with DNA nucleotides.DNA ligase links the two sections.
22 Comparing DNA Replication in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Eukaryotic DNA unwinds in multiple areas as DNA is replicated.In prokaryotes, the circular DNA strand is opened at one origin of replication.
23 12.3 DNA, RNA, and ProteinMain idea: DNA codes for RNA, which guides protein synthesisObjectives:Explain how messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA are involved in the transcription and translation of genes.Summarize the role of RNA polymerase in the synthesis of messenger RNA.Describe how the code of DNA is translated into messenger RNA and is utilized to synthesize a particular protein.
24 12.3 DNA, RNA, and Protein (cont.) Review VocabularySynthesis: the composition or combination of parts to form a wholeNew VocabularyRNA PolymeraseMessenger RNARibosomal RNATransfer RNATranscriptionRNA polymeraseCodonIntronExonTranslation
25 Central Dogma “Dogma”means- a way something happens Geneticists now accept that the basic mechanism of reading and expressing genes is from DNA to RNA to protein.Central Dogma of Biology: DNA codes for RNA, which guides the synthesis of protein.RNA contains the sugar ribose, the base uracil replaces thymine, and is usually single stranded
26 Three Major Types of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) - Long strands of RNA nucleotides that are formed complementary to one strand of DNA. They travel from the nucleus to the ribosome to direct the synthesis of a specific protein.Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - Associates with proteins to form ribosomes in the cytoplasm.Transfer RNA (tRNA) - Smaller segments of RNA nucleotides that transport amino acids to the ribosome.
28 TranscriptionThrough transcription, the DNA code is transferred to mRNA in the nucleus.DNA is unzipped in the nucleus and RNA polymerase binds to a specific section where an mRNA will be synthesized.
29 Transcription (cont.)As the DNA strand unwinds, the RNA polymerase initiates mRNA synthesis and moves along one of the DNA strands in the 3’ to 5’ direction.Template strand – read by RNA polymerase, and mRNA is synthesized by a complement to the DNA nucleotides.Nontemplate strand – not read by RNA PolymeraseThe mRNA transcript is manufactured in a 5’ to 3’ direction, adding each new RNA nucleotide to the 3’ end.Uracil is incorporated instead of thymine as the mRNA molecule is made.Eventually, the mRNA is released, and the RNA polymerase detaches from the DNA.The new mRNA then moves out of the nucleus through the nuclear pore into the cytoplasm.
30 RNA ProcessingThe code on the DNA is interrupted periodically by sequences that are not in the final mRNA.Intervening sequences are called introns.Remaining pieces of DNA that serve as the coding sequences are called exons.Other processing includes adding a protective cap on the 5’ end and adding a tail of many adenine nucleotides, called the poly-A tail, to the 3’ end of the mRNA.The cap aids in ribosome recognition but scientists do not understand the full function of the poly-A tail.The mRNA that reaches the ribosome has been processed.
31 The CodeScientist knew that 20 amino acids were used to make proteins, so they knew that the DNA must provide at least 20 different codes.Experiments during the 1960s demonstrated that the DNA code was a three-base code.The three-base code in DNA or mRNA is called a codon.Each of the three bases of the codon in the DNA is transcribed into the mRNA code.
32 Dictionary of the Genetic Code Notice that all but three codons are specific for an amino acid – they are stop codons.Codon AUG codes for the amino acid methionine and also functions as the start codon.
33 TranslationIn translation, tRNA molecules act as the interpreters of the mRNA codon sequence.At the middle of the folded strand, there is a three-base coding sequence called the anticodon.Each anticodon is complementary to a codon on the mRNA.
35 The Role of the Ribosome When the mRNA leaves the nucleus , the two parts of the ribosome come together and attach to the mRNA to complete the ribosome.Once the mRNA is associated with the ribosome, tRNA with the anticodon carrying its respective amino acid will move in and bind to the mRNA codon at the 5’ end.The rRNA in the ribosome now acts as enzyme catalyzing the formation of a peptide bond between the amino acids creating the amino acid chain or peptide chain.As the amino acids join the tRNA is released.This process continues until the ribosome contains a stop codon and signals the end of protein synthesis.Protein release factors cause the mRNA to be released from the last tRNA and the ribosome disassemble.
36 One Gene – One EnzymeIn the 1940’s the Beadle and Tatum experiment showed that one gene codes for one enzyme. We now know that one gene codes for one polypeptide.
37 12.4 Gene Regulation and Mutation Main idea: Gene expression is regulated by the cell, and mutations can affect this expression.Objectives:Describe how bacteria are able to regulate their genes by two types of operons.Discuss how eukaryotes regulate transcription of gene.Summarize the various types of mutations
38 12.4 Gene Regulation and Mutation (cont.) Review VocabularyProkaryote: organism that does not have membrane-bound organelles and DNA that is organized in chromosomesNew VocabularyGene regulationOperonMutationMutagen
39 Prokaryote Gene Regulation Ability of an organism to control which genes are transcribed in response to the environmentAn operon is a section of DNA that contains the genes for the proteins needed for a specific metabolic pathway.OperatorPromoterRegulatory geneGenes coding for protein
42 Eukaryote Gene Regulation Controlling transcriptionTranscription factors ensure that a gene is used at the right time and that proteins are made in the right amountsThe complex structure of eukaryotic DNA also regulates transcription.
43 Hox GenesHox genes are responsible for the general body pattern of most animals.
44 RNA InteferenceRNA interference can stop the mRNA from translating its message.
45 MutationsA permanent change that occurs in a cell’s DNA is called a mutation.Types of MutationsPoint mutationInsertionDeletion
47 Protein Folding and Stability Substitutions also can lead to genetic disorders.Can change both the folding and stability of the protein
48 Causes of Mutations Can occur spontaneously Chemicals and radiation also can damage DNAHigh-energy forms of radiation, such as X rays and gamma rays, are highly mutagenic.
49 Body Cell Versus Sex Cell Mutations Somatic cell mutations are not passed on to the next generation.Mutations that occur in sex cells are passed on to the organism’s offspring and will be present in every cell of the offspring.