2DNA Pre-class question 4/27 If you were to take a chromosome, decompress it into chromatin, separate the nucleosomes and remove the histones, what would you have?DNAHomework – Due Tuesday (4/28)Active Reading: The Structure of DNA
3DNA is Genetic Material Found in Cells 3 Major Experiments 1. Griffith’s Discovery of Transformation2 Bacteria TypesRough (R), no capsule, broken down by the body’s immune system, does not cause pneumoniaSmooth (S), capsule, protected from the body’s immune system, causes pneumonia
4Griffith’s Experiment Conclusions Heat destroyed the capsule, but not the S bacteria.S bacteria has the genetic code for making the capsule.The genes of the S bacteria were taken up by the R bacteria, which then began to make the protective capsule.The genetic code of the R bacteria had been transformed.
5DNA, RNA or Protein? 2. Avery’s Experiment Avery wanted to know what substance, DNA, RNA or protein, was causing the transformation in Griffith’s experiment.When Avery treated the S heat killed bacteria with enzymes to destroy both RNA and protein, transformation still occurred.When Avery treated the S heat killed bacteria with enzymes to destroy the DNA, transformation did not occur.
6The Genetic Material in Viruses 2. Hershey Chase ExperimentHershey and Chase worked with bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria, which in turn produce more viruses). Bacteriophages are made of DNA and protein. The scientists wanted to know which substance the genetic material in the bacteriophage was made of.
73 PhasesStep 1Proteins Contain Sulfur and DNA contain phosphorus. Two virus samples were incubated with either radioactive sulfur or radioactive phosphorus.Step 2The virus samples were then allowed to infect bacteria. Each mixture was then separated into two portions, one containing bacteria and the other containing only viruses.
8ConclusionStep 3The infected bacteria contained radioactive phosphorus, but did not contain radioactive sulfur.Because the Bacteria contained radioactive phosphorus, and phosphorus is a component of DNA, Hershey and Chase conclude that DNA was the genetic material in viruses.
9Pre-Class Question 4/28In the Hershey-Chase experiment, where DNA was found to be the component of bacteriophages responsible for “infecting” bacteria, what radioactive substance was found in the bacteria?
10The Double Helix of DNAEach strand of DNA is made of subunits called nucleotidesEach nucleotide is made of 3 parts:A phosphate groupA 5 carbon sugar molecule(Deoxyribose)A nitrogen containing base
11The Information in DNA Nitrogen Bases Purines Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)PyrimidinesCytosine (C) and Thymine (T)On opposite strands, A alwayspairs up with T and C alwayspairs up with G. Base pairsare held together with hydrogenbonds. The strands are said to becomplimentary.
12Discovering DNA’s Structure Chargaff’s ObservationIn every organism, the amount of thymine always equals the amount of adenine. Likewise the amount of cytosine always equals the amount of guanine.Photographs of DNARosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkinsdeveloped x-ray diffraction images ofstrands of DNA.
13Discovering DNA’s Structure, Cont. Watson and Crick’s Model of DNABy combining Chargaff’s observation and the photographs taken by Franklin and Wilkins, Watson and Crick created a 3-dimensional double helix model of DNA which won them the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962.
14Replication of DNAIn DNA replication, the DNA molecule unwinds, and the two sides split. Then new nucleotide sequences are added to each side until two identical sequences result.DNA replication occurs before cell division so that each new daughter cell has a complete copy of the parent DNA.
153 Steps of DNA Replication DNA helicases break the hydrogen bonds between base pairs and unwind the helix. As the strands separate, replication forks formStep 1 – Unwinding and Strand SeparationStep 2 – Adding Complementary BasesDNA polymerase forms the new DNA molecule by traveling along each single strand and adding complementary nucleotides.Step 3 – Formation of Two Identical DNA MoleculesTwo identical DNA molecules are produced, each consisting of one new strand
16Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Replication Prokaryotic ReplicationEukaryotic ReplicationProkaryotes have circular DNAReplication occurs at one site, producing 2 replication forks and proceeds in opposite directionsEukaryotes have linear DNAReplication occurs at many sites, producing 2 replication forks and proceeds in opposite directions.
17Eukaryotic Replication Because replication occurs at more than one site on the DNA, eukaryotic DNA can be replicated at a faster rate than prokaryotic DNA. An entire human chromosome can be replicated in about 8 hours.
18Gene Expression and RNA Stage I – TranscriptionTakes place in the nucleusRNA is made from DNAStage II – TranslationTakes place in the cytoplasm on ribosomesUses RNA to make proteins
19How is RNA different from DNA? RNA is single strandedAn RNA nucleotide contains ribose sugar, not deoxyribose.RNA contains the nitrogenous base, Uracil, but does not contain Thymine.
203 Types of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA. Messenger RNA transports the genetic code to ribosomes for translation.Transfer RNA (tRNA)Transfer RNA reads the mRNA sequence and translates it into amino acids which are used to make proteins.Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)Ribosomes are comprised of ribosomal RNA and proteins/
21Transcription (3 Steps) Step 1 – RNA polymerase binds to a “promoter” gene or “start” location on the DNA.Step 2 – RNA polymerase unwinds the DNAStep 3 – RNA polymerase moves along the DNA adding complementary RNA bases (A-U, T-A, C-G, G-C)As RNA base pairs are added, the DNA strands close up and reform the double helix. Eventually the polymerase reaches a stop signal in the DNA.
22Transcription vs. Replication In both processes, DNA is used as a template. However, transcription results in the formation of mRNA whereas replication results in the formation of DNA. During replication, both DNA strands are involved while only one DNA strand is involved in transcription.
23Nitrogenous base (A,T,C,G,U) Pre-class Question 5/11Which part of a nucleotide contains genetic information?Nitrogenous base (A,T,C,G,U)HomeworkChapter 13 Vocab Quiz WednesdayChapter 13 Test Friday
24The Genetic Code: Three-Letter Words Each 3-nucleotide sequence is called a codonEach codon contains the code to make 1 of 20 amino acids (building blocks of proteins).
26Translation: RNA to Proteins Step 1-Binding of tRNA to mRNAThe anti-codon of tRNA binds to the mRNA start codon at the ribosome. Each tRNA carries one amino acid. The amino acid carried by this tRNA is methionine.
27Translation continued Step 2 – Formation of peptide bondsA second tRNA anti-codon binds to the next sequence of mRNA. As a peptide bond is formed between the two adjacent amino acids, the first tRNA is released from the ribosome.
28Translation Continued Step 3 –The ribosome moves one codon down the mRNA. The mRNA and the tRNA move as a unit.Step –The process of translating mRNA into an amino acid chain continues until stop codon is reaced
29The Final Step of Translation The newly made polypeptide falls off the ribosome, the ribosome complex falls apart and the ribosome is then free to begin translation again with the same mRNA molecule or with a different transcript.