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Biology Ch. 12 Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology Ch. 12 Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology Ch. 12 Review

2 Avery’s experiments showed that bacteria are transformed by
RNA. DNA. proteins. carbohydrates.

3 What did Griffith observe when he injected a mixture of heat-killed, disease-causing bacteria and live harmless bacteria into mice? The disease-causing bacteria changed into harmless bacteria. The mice developed pneumonia. The harmless bacteria died. The mice were unaffected.

4 What would Hershey and Chase have concluded if both radioactive 32P and 35S were found in the bacteria in their experiment? The virus’s protein coat was not injected into the bacteria. The virus’s DNA was not injected into the bacteria. Genes are made of protein. Both the virus’s protein coat and its DNA were injected into the bacteria.

5 The figure shows the structure of a(an)
DNA molecule. amino acid. RNA molecule. protein.

6 Which of the following is a nucleotide found in DNA?
ribose + phosphate group + thymine ribose + phosphate group + uracil deoxyribose + phosphate group + uracil deoxyribose + phosphate group + cytosine

7 Because of base pairing in DNA, the percentage of
adenine molecules in DNA is about equal to the percentage of guanine molecules. pyrimidines in DNA is about equal to the percentage of purines. purines in DNA is much greater than the percentage of pyrimidines. cytosine molecules in DNA is much greater than the percentage of guanine molecules.

8 In eukaryotes, DNA is located in the nucleus.
floats freely in the cytoplasm. is located in the ribosomes. is circular.

9 During mitosis, the DNA molecules unwind.
histones and DNA molecules separate. DNA molecules become more tightly coiled. nucleosomes become more tightly packed.

10 Which of the following include all the others?
DNA molecules histones chromosomes nucleosomes

11 DNA is copied during a process called
replication. translation. transcription. transformation.

12 DNA replication results in two DNA molecules,
each with two new strands. one with two new strands and the other with two original strands. each with one new strand and one original strand. each with two original strands.

13 During DNA replication, a DNA strand that has the bases CTAGGT produces a strand with the bases

14 RNA contains the sugar ribose. deoxyribose. glucose. lactose.

15 Unlike DNA, RNA contains
adenine. uracil. phosphate groups. thymine.

16 Which of the following are found in both DNA and RNA?
ribose, phosphate groups, and adenine deoxyribose, phosphate groups, and guanine phosphate groups, guanine, and cytosine phosphate groups, guanine, and thymine

17 How many main types of RNA are there?
1 3 hundreds thousands

18 Which type(s) of RNA is(are) involved in protein synthesis?
transfer RNA only messenger RNA only ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA only messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA

19 Which of the following are copied from DNA?
mRNA only mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA mRNA and tRNA only proteins

20 What is produced during transcription?
RNA molecules DNA molecules RNA polymerase proteins

21 During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed
that is complementary to both strands of DNA. that is identical to part of a single strand of DNA. that is double-stranded. inside the nucleus.

22 Which of the following statements is true?
A promoter is part of an intron. A pre-mRNA molecule is longer than the gene from which the molecule was transcribed. Introns are sequences of DNA. Any mRNA molecules made from the same gene are always edited the same way.

23 What does the figure show?
anticodons the order in which amino acids are linked the code for splicing mRNA the genetic code

24 How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids?
3 6 9 12

25 Why is it possible for an amino acid to be specified by more than one kind of codon?
Some codons have the same sequence of nucleotides. There are 64 different kinds of codons but only 20 amino acids. Some codons do not specify an amino acid. The codon AUG codes for the amino acid methionine and serves as the “start” codon for protein synthesis.

26 What happens during the process of translation?
Messenger RNA is made from DNA. The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins. Transfer RNA is made from messenger RNA. Copies of DNA molecules are made.

27 Which of the following terms is LEAST closely related to the others?
intron tRNA polypeptide anticodon

28 During translation, the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide depends on the
codon on the mRNA only. anticodon on the mRNA only. anticodon on the tRNA to which the amino acid is attached only. codon on the mRNA and the anticodon on the tRNA to which the amino acid is attached.

29 Genes contain instructions for assembling
purines. nucleosomes. proteins. pyrimidines.

30 Which type of RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code?
rRNA tRNA mRNA RNA polymerase

31 Which of the following statements is false?
Some genes code for enzymes. The instructions for making some proteins are not specified by genes. An organism’s inherited traits depend on proteins. An organism’s genes determine its inherited traits.

32 A mutation that involves one or a few nucleotides is called a(an)
chromosomal mutation. inversion. point mutation. translocation.

33 Which of the following is NOT a gene mutation?
inversion insertion deletion substitution

34 Which of the following is NEVER a frameshift mutation?
substitution insertion deletion point mutation

35 A promoter is a binding site for DNA polymerase.
binding site for RNA polymerase. start signal for transcription. stop signal for transcription.

36 Which of the following statements is true?
A promoter determines whether a gene is expressed. An expressed gene is turned off. Proteins that bind to regulatory sites on DNA determine whether a gene is expressed. RNA polymerase regulates gene expression.

37 If a specific kind of protein is not continually used by a cell, the gene for that protein is
always transcribed. never expressed. turned on and off at different times. not regulated.

38 In E. coli, the lac operon controls the
breakdown of lactose. production of lactose. breakdown of glucose. production of glucose.

39 A lac repressor turns off the lac genes by
binding to the promoter. DNA polymerase. binding to the operator. binding to the lac genes.

40 When E. coli is grown on glucose,
lactose molecules bind to the lac repressor. the lac repressor binds to the operator of the lac operon. RNA polymerase binds to the promoter of the lac operon. the lac genes are transcribed.

41 Which of the following is NOT generally part of a eukaryotic gene?
operon TATA box promoter sequences enhancer sequences

42 Gene regulation in eukaryotes
usually involves operons. is simpler than in prokaryotes. allows for cell specialization. includes the action of an operator region.

43 Specialized cells regulate the expression of genes because they
do not want the genes to become worn out. cannot control translation. do not carry the complete genetic code in their nuclei. do not need the proteins that are specified by certain genes.

44 Hox genes determine an animal’s
basic body plan. size. skin color. eye color.

45 Which of the following statements is false?
Mutations do not occur in hox genes. Hox genes that are found in different animals are very different from each other. Hox genes control the normal development of an animal. Hox genes occur in clusters.

46 Hox genes are regulated by operons. are found in bacteria.
are not found in humans. determine the location of a dog’s ears.

47 The replication of a DNA molecule results in four copies of the same gene.
True False

48 DNA is tightly wrapped around nucleosomes.
True False

49 In eukaryotes, DNA replication proceeds in one direction along the DNA molecule.
True False

50 If a nucleic acid contains uracil, it is DNA.
True False

51 The nitrogenous bases in RNA are able to form hydrogen bonds with each other.
True False

52 During DNA replication, only one strand of DNA serves as a template.
True False

53 A codon consists of four nucleotides.
True False

54 The anticodon AGA is complementary to the codon TCT.
True False

55 Genes determine a person’s eye color by coding for nitrogenous bases that affect eye color.
True False

56 DNA codes for DNA polymerase.
True False

57 Without regulatory sites, the expression of a gene would not be controlled.
True False

58 In prokaryotes, an operon is a group of genes that are operated together.
True False

59 Gene regulation in eukaryotes is less complex than in prokaryotes.
True False

60 The TATA box in eukaryotes helps to ensure transcription.
True False

61 In fruit flies, the hox gene that controls the development of the wings is located before the hox gene that controls the development of the eye and before the hox gene that controls the development of the abdomen. True False

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