Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Table of Contents Section 1 Discovery of DNA"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 10 Table of Contents Section 1 Discovery of DNA DNA, RNA, and Protein SynthesisTable of ContentsSection 1 Discovery of DNASection 2 DNA StructureSection 3 DNA ReplicationSection 4 Protein Synthesis
2 Section 1 Discovery of DNA Chapter 10ObjectivesRelate how Griffith’s bacterial experiments showed that a hereditary factor was involved in transformation.Summarize how Avery’s experiments led his group to conclude that DNA is responsible for transformation in bacteria.Describe how Hershey and Chase’s experiment led to the conclusion that DNA, not protein, is the hereditary molecule in viruses.
3 Griffith’s Experiments Section 1 Discovery of DNAChapter 10Griffith’s ExperimentsGriffith’s experiments showed that hereditary material can pass from one bacterial cell to another.The transfer of genetic material from one cell to another cell or from one organism to another organism is called transformation.
4 Griffith’s Discovery of Transformation Section 1 Discovery of DNAChapter 10Griffith’s Discovery of Transformation
5 Chapter 10 Avery’s Experiments Section 1 Discovery of DNAChapter 10Avery’s ExperimentsAvery’s work showed that DNA is the hereditary material that transfers information between bacterial cells.
6 Hershey-Chase Experiment Section 1 Discovery of DNAChapter 10Hershey-Chase ExperimentHershey and Chase confirmed that DNA, and not protein, is the hereditary material.
7 The Hershey-Chase Experiment Section 1 Discovery of DNAChapter 10The Hershey-Chase Experiment
8 Section 2 DNA StructureChapter 10ObjectivesEvaluate the contributions of Franklin and Wilkins in helping Watson and Crick discover DNA’s double helix structure.Describe the three parts of a nucleotide.Summarize the role of covalent and hydrogen bonds in the structure of DNA.Relate the role of the base-pairing rules to the structure of DNA.
9 Chapter 10 DNA Double Helix Section 2 DNA StructureChapter 10DNA Double HelixWatson and Crick created a model of DNA by using Franklin’s and Wilkins’s DNA diffraction X-rays.
10 Chapter 10 DNA Double Helix Section 2 DNA StructureChapter 10DNA Double HelixDNA is made of two nucleotide strands that wrap around each other in the shape of a double helix.
11 DNA Double Helix, continued Section 2 DNA StructureChapter 10DNA Double Helix, continuedA DNA nucleotide is made of a 5-carbon deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T).
12 DNA Nucleotides, continued Section 2 DNA StructureChapter 10DNA Nucleotides, continuedBonds Hold DNA TogetherNucleotides along each DNA strand are linked by covalent bonds.Complementary nitrogenous bases are bonded by hydrogen bonds.
13 Chapter 10 Complementary Bases Section 2 DNA StructureChapter 10Complementary BasesHydrogen bonding between the complementary base pairs, G-C and A-T, holds the two strands of a DNA molecule together.
15 Chapter 10 Objectives Section 3 DNA Replication Summarize the process of DNA replication.Identify the role of enzymes in the replication of DNA.Describe how complementary base pairing guides DNA replication.Compare the number of replication forks in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells during DNA replication.Describe how errors are corrected during DNA replication.
16 How DNA Replication Occurs Section 3 DNA ReplicationChapter 10How DNA Replication OccursDNA replication is the process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides.
17 How DNA Replication Occurs, continued Section 3 DNA ReplicationChapter 10How DNA Replication Occurs, continuedSteps of DNA ReplicationReplication begins with the separation of the DNA strands by helicases.Then, DNA polymerases form new strands by adding complementary nucleotides to each of the original strands.
18 Section 3 DNA Replication Chapter 10DNA Replication
19 How DNA Replication Occurs, continued Section 3 DNA ReplicationChapter 10How DNA Replication Occurs, continuedEach new DNA molecule is made of one strand of nucleotides from the original DNA molecule and one new strand. This is called semi-conservative replication.
20 DNA Errors in Replication Section 3 DNA ReplicationChapter 10DNA Errors in ReplicationChanges in DNA are called mutations.The change in one nucleotide during replication is referred to as a point mutation.DNA Replication and CancerUnrepaired mutations that affect genes that control cell division can cause diseases such as cancer.
21 Chapter 10 Objectives Section 4 Protein Synthesis Outline the flow of genetic information in cells from DNA to protein.Compare the structure of RNA with that of DNA.Describe the importance of the genetic code.Compare the role of mRNA, rRNA,and tRNA in translation.Identify the importance of learning about the human genome.
22 Flow of Genetic Information Section 4 Protein SynthesisChapter 10Flow of Genetic InformationThe flow of genetic information can be symbolized as DNA RNA protein.
24 RNA Structure and Function Section 4 Protein SynthesisChapter 10RNA Structure and FunctionRNA has the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose and uracil in place of thymine.RNA is single stranded and is shorter than DNA.
25 RNA Structure and Function, continued Section 4 Protein SynthesisChapter 10RNA Structure and Function, continuedTypes of RNACells have three major types of RNA:messenger RNA (mRNA)ribosomal RNA (rRNA)transfer RNA (tRNA)
26 RNA Structure and Function, continued Section 4 Protein SynthesisChapter 10RNA Structure and Function, continuedmRNA carries the genetic “message” from the nucleus to the cytosol.rRNA is the major component of ribosomes.tRNA carries specific amino acids, helping to form polypeptides.
27 Chapter 10 Transcription Section 4 Protein SynthesisChapter 10TranscriptionDuring transcription, DNA acts as a template for directing the synthesis of RNA.
28 Section 4 Protein Synthesis Chapter 10Transcription
32 Chapter 10 Translation Steps of Translation Section 4 Protein SynthesisChapter 10TranslationSteps of TranslationDuring translation, amino acids are assembled from information encoded in mRNA.As the mRNA codons move through the ribosome, tRNAs add specific amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain.The process continues until a stop codon is reached and the newly made protein is released.
33 Translation: Assembling Proteins Section 4 Protein SynthesisChapter 10Translation: Assembling ProteinsAssemble a Protein
34 Chapter 10 The Human Genome Section 4 Protein SynthesisChapter 10The Human GenomeThe entire gene sequence of the human genome, the complete genetic content, is now known.To learn where and when human cells use each of the proteins coded for in the approximately 30,000 genes in the human genome will take much more analysis.