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Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 12 Molecular Genetics Section 1: DNA: The Genetic Material Section 2: Replication of DNA Section 3: DNA, RNA,

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Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 12 Molecular Genetics Section 1: DNA: The Genetic Material Section 2: Replication of DNA Section 3: DNA, RNA,"— Presentation transcript:

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3 Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 12 Molecular Genetics Section 1: DNA: The Genetic Material Section 2: Replication of DNA Section 3: DNA, RNA, and Protein Section 4: Gene Regulation and Mutation

4 12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 Griffith  Performed the first major experiment that led to the discovery of DNA as the genetic material

5 Molecular Genetics Avery  Identified the molecule that transformed the R strain of bacteria into the S strain  Concluded that when the S cells were killed, DNA was released  R bacteria incorporated this DNA into their cells and changed into S cells DNA: The Genetic Material Chapter 12

6 Molecular Genetics Hershey and Chase  Used radioactive labeling to trace the DNA and protein  Concluded that the viral DNA was injected into the cell and provided the genetic information needed to produce new viruses 12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material Chapter 12

7 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

8 Molecular Genetics DNA Structure  Nucleotides  Consist of a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base 12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material Chapter 12

9 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

10 Molecular Genetics Chargaff  Chargaff’s rule: C = G and T = A 12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material Chapter 12

11 Molecular Genetics X-ray Diffraction  X-ray diffraction data helped solve the structure of DNA  Indicated that DNA was a double helix 12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material Chapter 12

12 Molecular Genetics Watson and Crick  Built a model of the double helix that conformed to the others’ research 1. two outside strands consist of alternating deoxyribose and phosphate 2. cytosine and guanine bases pair to each other by three hydrogen bonds 3. thymine and adenine bases pair to each other by two hydrogen bonds 12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material Chapter 12

13 Molecular Genetics DNA Structure  DNA often is compared to a twisted ladder.  Rails of the ladder are represented by the alternating deoxyribose and phosphate.  The pairs of bases (cytosine–guanine or thymine–adenine) form the steps DNA: The Genetic Material Chapter 12

14 Molecular Genetics Orientation  On the top rail, the strand is said to be oriented 5′ to 3′.  The strand on the bottom runs in the opposite direction and is oriented 3′ to 5′ DNA: The Genetic Material Chapter 12

15 12.1 DNA: The Genetic Material Molecular Genetics Chromosome Structure  DNA coils around histones to form nucleosomes, which coil to form chromatin fibers.  The chromatin fibers supercoil to form chromosomes that are visible in the metaphase stage of mitosis. Chapter 12

16 12.2 Replication of DNA Molecular Genetics Semiconservative Replication  Parental strands of DNA separate, serve as templates, and produce DNA molecules that have one strand of parental DNA and one strand of new DNA. Chapter 12

17 Molecular Genetics Unwinding  DNA helicase, an enzyme, is responsible for unwinding and unzipping the double helix.  RNA primase adds a short segment of RNA, called an RNA primer, on each DNA strand Replication of DNA Chapter 12

18 Molecular Genetics Base pairing  DNA polymerase continues adding appropriate nucleotides to the chain by adding to the 3′ end of the new DNA strand Replication of DNA Chapter 12

19 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

20 Molecular Genetics  One strand is called the leading strand and is elongated as the DNA unwinds.  The other strand of DNA, called the lagging strand, elongates away from the replication fork.  The lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously into small segments, called Okazaki fragments Replication of DNA Chapter 12

21 Molecular Genetics Joining  DNA polymerase removes the RNA primer and fills in the place with DNA nucleotides.  DNA ligase links the two sections Replication of DNA Chapter 12

22 12.2 Replication of DNA Molecular Genetics Comparing DNA Replication in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes  Eukaryotic DNA unwinds in multiple areas as DNA is replicated.  In prokaryotes, the circular DNA strand is opened at one origin of replication. Chapter 12

23 12.3 DNA, RNA, and Protein Molecular Genetics Central Dogma  RNA  Contains the sugar ribose and the base uracil  Usually is single stranded Chapter 12

24 Molecular Genetics Messenger RNA (mRNA)  Long strands of RNA nucleotides that are formed complementary to one strand of DNA Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)  Associates with proteins to form ribosomes in the cytoplasm Transfer RNA (tRNA)  Smaller segments of RNA nucleotides that transport amino acids to the ribosome 12.3 DNA, RNA, and Protein Chapter 12

25 Molecular Genetics 12.3 DNA, RNA, and Protein Chapter 12

26 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

27  DNA is unzipped in the nucleus and RNA polymerase binds to a specific section where an mRNA will be synthesized. Molecular Genetics Transcription  Through transcription, the DNA code is transferred to mRNA in the nucleus DNA, RNA, and Protein Chapter 12

28 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

29 Molecular Genetics RNA Processing  The code on the DNA is interrupted periodically by sequences that are not in the final mRNA.  Intervening sequences are called introns.  Remaining pieces of DNA that serve as the coding sequences are called exons DNA, RNA, and Protein Chapter 12 DNA and Genes

30 Molecular Genetics The Code  Experiments during the 1960s demonstrated that the DNA code was a three-base code.  The three-base code in DNA or mRNA is called a codon DNA, RNA, and Protein Chapter 12

31 Molecular Genetics Translation  In translation, tRNA molecules act as the interpreters of the mRNA codon sequence.  At the middle of the folded strand, there is a three-base coding sequence called the anticodon.  Each anticodon is complementary to a codon on the mRNA DNA, RNA, and Protein Chapter 12

32 Molecular Genetics 12.3 DNA, RNA, and Protein Chapter 12

33 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

34 12.3 DNA, RNA, and Protein Molecular Genetics One Gene— One Enzyme  The Beadle and Tatum experiment showed that one gene codes for one enzyme. We now know that one gene codes for one polypeptide. Chapter 12

35 12.4 Gene Regulation and Mutation Molecular Genetics Prokaryote Gene Regulation  Ability of an organism to control which genes are transcribed in response to the environment  An operon is a section of DNA that contains the genes for the proteins needed for a specific metabolic pathway.  Operator  Promoter  Regulatory gene  Genes coding for proteins Chapter 12

36 Molecular Genetics The Trp Operon 12.4 Gene Regulation and Mutation Chapter 12

37 Molecular Genetics The Lac Operon 12.4 Gene Regulation and Mutation Chapter 12 Lac-Trp Operon

38 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

39 Molecular Genetics Eukaryote Gene Regulation  Controlling transcription  Transcription factors ensure that a gene is used at the right time and that proteins are made in the right amounts  The complex structure of eukaryotic DNA also regulates transcription Gene Regulation and Mutation Chapter 12

40 Molecular Genetics Hox Genes  Hox genes are responsible for the general body pattern of most animals Gene Regulation and Mutation Chapter 12

41 Molecular Genetics RNA Interference  RNA interference can stop the mRNA from translating its message Gene Regulation and Mutation Chapter 12

42 Molecular Genetics Mutations  A permanent change that occurs in a cell’s DNA is called a mutation.  Types of mutations  Point mutation  Insertion  Deletion 12.4 Gene Regulation and Mutation Chapter 12

43 Molecular Genetics 12.4 Gene Regulation and Mutation Chapter 12

44 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

45 Molecular Genetics Protein Folding and Stability  Substitutions also can lead to genetic disorders.  Can change both the folding and stability of the protein 12.4 Gene Regulation and Mutation Chapter 12

46 Molecular Genetics Causes of Mutation  Can occur spontaneously  Chemicals and radiation also can damage DNA.  High-energy forms of radiation, such as X rays and gamma rays, are highly mutagenic Gene Regulation and Mutation Chapter 12

47 Molecular Genetics Body-cell v. Sex-cell Mutation  Somatic cell mutations are not passed on to the next generation.  Mutations that occur in sex cells are passed on to the organism’s offspring and will be present in every cell of the offspring Gene Regulation and Mutation Chapter 12

48 Molecular Genetics Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature. Chapter 12

49 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 1 A. Watson and Crick B. Mendel C. Hershey and Chase D. Avery Which scientist(s) definitively proved that DNA transfers genetic material? Molecular Genetics Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 12

50 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 2 Molecular Genetics Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 12 A. ligase B. Okazaki fragments C. polymerase D. helicase Name the small segments of the lagging DNA strand.

51 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 3 Molecular Genetics Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 12 A. It contains the sugar ribose. B. It contains the base uracil. C. It is single-stranded. D. It contains a phosphate. Which is not true of RNA?

52 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 1 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 A. carbohydrate B. DNA C. lipid D. protein The experiments of Avery, Hershey and Chase provided evidence that the carrier of genetic information is _______ Formative Questions

53 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 2 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 A. A—G and C—T B. A—T and C—G C. C—A and G—T D. C—U and A—G What is the base-pairing rule for purines and pyrimidines in the DNA molecule? 12.1 Formative Questions

54 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 3 Molecular Genetics Chapter Formative Questions A.chromatin and histones B. DNA and protein C. DNA and lipids D. protein and centromeres What are chromosomes composed of?

55 1.A 2.B FQ 4 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 The work of Watson and Crick solved the mystery of how DNA works as a genetic code. A. True B. False 12.2 Formative Questions

56 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 5 Molecular Genetics Chapter Formative Questions A. DNA ligase B. DNA polymerase C. hilicase D. RNA primer Which is not an enzyme involved in DNA replication?

57 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 6 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 Which shows the basic chain of events in all organisms for reading and expressing genes? A. DNA  RNA  protein B. RNA  DNA  protein C. mRNA  rRNA  tRNA D. RNA processing  transcription  translation 12.3 Formative Questions

58 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 7 Molecular Genetics Chapter Formative Questions In the RNA molecule, uracil replaces _______. A. adenine B. cytosine C. purine D. thymine

59 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 8 Molecular Genetics Chapter Formative Questions Which diagram shows messenger RNA (mRNA)? A. C. B. D.

60 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 9 Molecular Genetics Chapter Formative Questions What characteristic of the mRNA molecule do scientists not yet understand? A. intervening sequences in the mRNA molecule called introns B. the original mRNA made in the nucleus called the pre-mRNA C. how the sequence of bases in the mRNA molecule codes for amino acids D. the function of many adenine nucleotides at the 5′ end called the poly-A tail

61 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 10 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 Why do eukaryotic cells need a complex control system to regulate the expression of genes? A. All of an organism’s cells transcribe the same genes. B. Expression of incorrect genes can lead to mutations. C. Certain genes are expressed more frequently than others are. D. Different genes are expressed at different times in an organism’s lifetime Formative Questions

62 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 11 Molecular Genetics Chapter Formative Questions Which type of gene causes cells to become specialized in structure in function? A. exon B. Hox gene C. intron D. operon

63 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 12 Molecular Genetics Chapter Formative Questions What is an immediate result of a mutation in a gene? A. cancer B. genetic disorder C. nonfunctional enzyme D. amino acid deficiency

64 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 13 Molecular Genetics Chapter Formative Questions Which is the most highly mutagenic? A. chemicals in food B. cigarette smoke C. ultraviolet radiation D. X rays

65 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CAQ 1 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 Look at the following figure. Identify the proteins that DNA first coils around. Chapter Assessment Questions A. chromatin fibers B. chromosomes C. histones D. nucleosome

66 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CAQ 2 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 Chapter Assessment Questions A. They determine size. B. They determine body plan. C. They determine sex. D. They determine number of body segments. Explain how Hox genes affect an organism.

67 Explain the difference between body-cell and sex-cell mutation. Molecular Genetics Chapter Assessment Questions Chapter 12 Answer: A mutagen in a body cell becomes part of the of the genetic sequence in that cell and in future daughter cells. The cell may die or simply not perform its normal function. These mutations are not passed on to the next generation. When mutations occur in sex cells, they will be present in every cell of the offspring. CAQ 3

68 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 1 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 What does this diagram show about the replication of DNA in eukaryotic cells? Standardized Test Practice A. DNA is replicated only at certain places along the chromosome. B. DNA replication is both semicontinuous and conservative. C. Multiple areas of replication occur along the chromosome at the same time. D. The leading DNA strand is synthesized discontinuously.

69 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 2 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 Standardized Test Practice A. mRNA processing B. protein synthesis C. transcription D. translation What is this process called?

70 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 3 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 Standardized Test Practice What type of mutation results in this change in the DNA sequence? A. deletion B. frameshift C. insertion D. substitution TTCAGG TTCTGG

71 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 4 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 Standardized Test Practice How could RNA interference be used to treat diseases such as cancer and diabetes? A. by activating genes to produce proteins that can overcome the disease B. by interfering with DNA replication in cells affected by the disease C. by preventing the translation of mRNA into the genes associated with the disease D. by shutting down protein synthesis in the cells of diseased tissues

72 1.A 2.B STP 5 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12 Standardized Test Practice The structure of a protein can be altered dramatically by the exchange of a single amino acid for another. A. True B. False

73 Molecular Genetics Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 12

74 Molecular Genetics Image Bank Chapter 12

75 Molecular Genetics Image Bank Chapter 12

76 double helix nucleosome Molecular Genetics Vocabulary Section 1 Chapter 12

77 semiconservative replication DNA polymerase Okazaki fragment Molecular Genetics Vocabulary Section 2 Chapter 12

78 RNA messenger RNA ribosomal RNA transfer RNA transcription RNA polymerase codon intron exon translation Molecular Genetics Vocabulary Section 3 Chapter 12

79 gene regulation operon mutation mutagen Molecular Genetics Vocabulary Section 4 Chapter 12

80 Molecular Genetics  Structure of DNA Structure of DNA  DNA Polymerase DNA Polymerase  Transcription Transcription  Visualizing Transcription and Translation Visualizing Transcription and Translation  Lac-Trp Operon Lac-Trp Operon Animation Chapter 12

81 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

82 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

83 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

84 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12

85 Molecular Genetics Chapter 12


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