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Liberalism and Juarez Mexico is a mess: exhausted, humiliated, half of its territory lost (gold rush starts) –Apaches attacking in north, Mayas rebelling.

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Presentation on theme: "Liberalism and Juarez Mexico is a mess: exhausted, humiliated, half of its territory lost (gold rush starts) –Apaches attacking in north, Mayas rebelling."— Presentation transcript:

1 Liberalism and Juarez Mexico is a mess: exhausted, humiliated, half of its territory lost (gold rush starts) –Apaches attacking in north, Mayas rebelling in Yucatan; chaos in central Mexico, social inequalities deepen KEY problem: creoles don’t invest in commerce and industry, but leave it to foreign owned mines and investors. 1855-1876: Liberals rise to power: Benito Juarez and others promote reforms: trade, free elections, free public educ., sep. of church and state, federalist republic –Ley Juarez: removes military and clergy exemptions –Ley Lerdo: church and state divest properties Indians lose their voice and rich estates grow larger –Ley Iglesias: church can’t set fees Reform War: 1858-61: Church and wealthy are angry

2 Mexican American War 1836-1845: Texas is independent (Mexico is busy fighting French invasion,bubonic plague, Yucatan bid for independence) President Tyler introduces join resolution for annexation of Texas, which claims that its border extends to Rio Grande and Colorado (Map of territory lost to US) Mexicans reject negotiations, threaten rebellion Zachary Taylor goes into Mexico, provokes response, claims Mexican invasion  WAR Mexico is routed all the way to “the halls of Montezuma”

3 The French Intervention Juarez puts moratorium on repayment of European debts incurred previously 1862: French, Brits and Spain decide to occupy Veracruz custom house to divert receipts France, under Napoleon III, however, has other ideas, marches toward the interior  “Cinco de Mayo” and Porfirio Diaz French resume march one year later, aided by aristocratic conservative creoles. 1864-67: Arch conservatives endorse Austrian archduke Maximilian (Hapsburg) and Carlota, who turn out to be young 19 th C. Romantics –Outlawed dept peonage and redistributed land –But nobody is happy with them: Max is eventually shot despite pleas for clemency

4 The Juarez (and Lerdo) Period: 1867-1876 Different factions were more or less happy –Hacendados were placated with control over their domains –Middle class happy with growing bureaucracy, public schools –Liberals satisfied: press is free, congress strengthened, church kept under control Improvements in infrastructure and governance –Railroads, police force, trade Problems –former military who were dismissed to roam the countryside as bandits –Land problem is explosive Indian revolts, famine In the end: tenuous hold on constitutional democracy

5 The “Porfiriato” Porfirio Diaz: 34 years: 1876-1910: –“No reelection” –“Bread and the Club” Dictator: the greatest villian in 20 th C. Mexico Legacy: –Achievements: cities beautified, banditry subdued, attracted foreign capital and modernized the economy –Expense: Mexican people, due process, democracy Technique: “Double-speak” Why? –Mexico is exhausted, tired of chaos

6 Porfirio Diaz Legacies Modernization: Creditworthiness  foreign investment Infrastructure, hydroelectric, mills and factories, ports, mining, telephone and telegraph; especially railroad “The Gilded Age” –Wealth, French influence, feminism, positivism (science and social Darwinism), emergent Mexican aesthetic in art “Dependencia” –85% of mines were US owned Guggenheim and Anaconda): oil companies: US and British. Banks and industries in foreign hands. Land concentration: 1910: 2% of pop holds title to land/ 3% of these cover 58% of Mexico –Ley Lerdo enforced –“Vacant Lands Survey” sale of “public” lands –Indians who sued were fined by judges of accused of besmirch the name of the hacendado or surveyor

7 Precursors to Revolution Starvation: –1910: 10% of Indian communities hold land (Arable lands: cash crops or fallow) –Indians refused land rental to grow crops –50% rise in pop since 1877, less maize produced Independence: 2 lbs.x person x day 1910: 1 lb. –Price of beans is now 6X 1877. –Wages are the same. Deplorable living conditions for poor Racism masked as “survival of the fittest” European immigration encouraged

8 The Pot Boils Nationalism results from multi-leveled aggravations –Upper classes resent foreign ownership –Middle classes resent Euro immigration –Peasants –US calls for annexation of Mexico, (US also intervenes on behalf of business interests in Guatemala and Caribbean Economic Depression: 1907-1908 Madero challenges, front runner, imprisioned 100 th Anniversary of Independence: 1910 –Porfirio spends 20 million pesos (> entire education budget)

9 The Revolution of Mexico: 1910-1940 Part I: Madero declares self president from San Antonio, calls for uprising to start on Nov. 20, 1910 –Teachers, mechanics, merchants, miners, creoles, hacendados, unemployed, bandits, peasants Porfirio Diaz fights, but can’t quell Chihuahua: –Terrazas: 50 haciendas and 7 million acres, mines, banks, telephone companies, and textile mills. Governors, senators, state legislators. –Pancho Villa and Pascual Orozco Feb. 11, 1911: Madero crosses border, marches to Mexico city. Diaz resigns on May 25.

10 The Revolution of Mexico: 1910-1940 Madero: weak, mistakes, underestimates opposition. Political revolution fine, but doesn’t solve problems Victoriano Huerta: becomes president, supported by Taft’s ambassador protecting US business interests. –“Dollar Diplomacy”: US intervention prolongs war as Mexico unites against invasion and Madero murdered. Huerta defeated. Woodrow Wilson supports revolutionaries: –Pancho Villa: bandit by trade: “Mexico’s Robin Hood” Land reform and universal education –Emiliano Zapata: small landowner and horse trainer “Plan de Ayala” articulated land reform issues that became central to revolution

11 Anarchy and militarization of Mexico: –various factions fight for control: key is that social change is desired, not just political change –Carranzas, Villa, Zapata, Obregon Each faction claims regional president Pancho Villa kills US citizens and sends troops to New Mexico for arms…”death to the gringos” provoking US to send Pershing into Mexico –Carranza has the largest territory, from Veracruz Allies with Obregon, defeats Villa, “Battle of Celaya” –Caranza Presidency 1917-1920 Constitution of 1917 But revolution continues---starves and exhausts population even further The Revolution of Mexico: 1910-1940

12 Constitution of 1917 Article 27: land reform, ½ of the constitution Eliminated monopolies on water and mineral resources Made ejidos inalienable Land redistribution to be paid for by gov. bonds Restricted foreign ownership and outlawed foreign intervention Article 123: destroyed debt peonage Minimum wage Working conditions Right to organize, collective bargaining and strike Catholic Church role limited Takes two decades to implement

13 Reconstruction and Stability: 1920- 1940 Obregon 1920-1924 –Vasconcelos: The Mexican vision, Mexican “cosmic race” Education Calles 1924-1928 –“Jefe Maximo” –The “Maximato” 1928-1934  PNR (Partido Nacional Revolutionario) later becomes the PRI (Partido Revolutionario Institutional) –Nationalist: almost nationalizes oil industry but oil companies retaliate, and thwart his agenda

14 Lazaro Cardenas: 1934-1940 “the people’s hero”: Honest, incorruptible Agrarian and labor reform –18 million hectares (50 million acres) Ejidos regained land; credit for irrigation and inputs –Encouraged to create political orgs for representation (CNC) Haciendas  peons –Supported labor unions (CTM) Nationalized oil: $24 million –Franklin D.Roosevelt supports non intervention in LA Development: transportation, healthcare, housing and sanitation  Population soars: Art and Culture—outpouring of creativity –“Mexicanidad” (Frida Kahlo) –Illiteracy goes from 80 % (Porfiriato) to 38%

15 Conservative shift (1940-58) Camacho, Aleman, Cortines –Good US relations Supported US during WWII Roosevelt visits interior of Mexico (Good Neighbor Policy)  Bracero program –Mexicanization of Industry: unique mix of social capitalism Manufacturing, 51% rule Huge growth in output (see chart) –Labor Policies: Reins tightened, Social security instituted, but population growth challenges –Agrarian Policies: Virtually abandoned, emphasis on industrial agriculture –Education: UNAM, but < 1$ of rural children finish 6 th grade –Social Policy: women win the vote

16 Shifting politics w/in the PRI: 1958-1976 Lopez Mateos (58-64): relative liberal elected with 90% vote –Land distribution (30 mill acres); Expanded SS and public health;Worker’s profit sharing; Education. Illiteracy keeps up with growing pop. –Economic dev: PEMEX, but nationalized electric and motion picture industries. Ordaz (64-70): bad for the 1960’s. –1968 Olympics –Tlatelolco Massacre of students Echeverria (70-76): –Thought to be responsible for the massacre, alienated –But shifts into “shared development” –But population growth continues

17 Lopez Portillo (1976-1982) Inherits double peso devaluation from Echevarria  embarrassment Petrodollars from new oil discoveries in Chiapas and Tabasco. Mexico is 4 th largest producer by 1981 Independent foreign policy: supported Cuba, Allende, against Reagan in Central America Despite oil, high social expenditures, and low international agricultural prices increase deficit to $12 billion  near default rescued by IMF and institution of SAP’s SAPs contract economy: inflation slows, Public spending reduced by 1/3 Mexico owes 53% of budget to foreign debt

18 1980’s-1990’s Pres. De la Madrid (1982-1988) –1985 earthquake –joins GATT, paving way for NAFTA –Opens elections to PAN Salinas de Gortari (1988-1994) “ elite Harvard technocrat” –Cuauhtemoc Cardenas abandons PRI  PRD –Electoral reforms –Privatizes, lifts 51% rule –1993/1994: NAFTA –Family and government corruption implicate him Zedillo (1994-2000) –1995: Another financial crisis and bailout by US/Clinton

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