Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION: PERSPECTIVES IN SPEECH SOUND DISORDERS (chapter 3)"— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION: PERSPECTIVES IN SPEECH SOUND DISORDERS (chapter 3)
Welcome to SPHP 126! We’re going to have a great semester.
In this class… I will be building bridges between SPHP 112 (Language Science), SPHP 126 (Speech Sound Development and Disorders), Phonetics/Speech Science (SPHP 110), and SPHP 125 (Child Language Disorders)
We will take all those floating puzzle pieces of knowledge And begin to fit them together!
We’ll do a fair amount of phonetic transcription in class… But it will not be graded
My new favorite website for phonetic symbols: The Sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronunc- soundsipa.htm
Remember that attendance and notetaking are very important
I. WHAT IS A SPEECH SOUND DISODER? (from ch. 1 — not required reading) Speech sound disorder Phonological disorder Articulation disorder
Back in the old days…. Our field used the terms phonological disorder and articulation disorder
New research article October 2014:** Macrae, T., & Tyler, A.A. (2014). Speech abilities in preschool children with speech sound disorder with and without co- occurring language impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 45, 302-313.
Macrae & Tyler 2014:** Compared preschool children with co- occurring SSD and language impairment (LI) to children with SSD only Looked at numbers and types of errors in both groups
III. BRIEF REVIEW OF ANATOMY This is from my visible body app on my iPad Just listen and let the information wash over you—this is a review from the fall—I won’t test you on it
IV. PHONETICS: BASIC DEFINITIONS** A. Definition of Phonetics Study of physical, physiological, and acoustic variables associated with speech sound production B. Clinical/Applied phonetics (other types of phonetics on p. 80 are not on test 1) Branch dedicated to practical application of knowledge
C. Phoneme** Family of sounds that the listener perceives as belonging to the same category-- /t/ D. Allophone Not a distinct phoneme; allophone is a member of a particular phoneme family t eabu tt erle t charac t er
G. Morphophonemics** Morphophonemic rules specify how sounds are combined to form morphemes Morphophonemics: sound alterations that result from the modification of free morphemes
Examples of morphophonemic rules:** If a noun ends in a voiced sound, use plural allomorph /z/ (tails, bags, pins) If a noun ends in a voiceless sound, use plural allomorph /s/ (tarts, cops, lakes) If a word ends in a voiceless sound, the past tense is pronounced /t/; if a word ends in a voiced sound, the past tense is pronounced /d/ cookedbuzzed
V. Suprasegmental Aspects of Speech A. Juncture
B. Vowels** Produced with an open vocal tract 1. Pure vowels (e.g., /a/, /i/, / ɪ /) 2. Diphthongs (e.g., /o ʊ /, /a ɪ /, /a ʊ /) Phonemic diphthongs —if you reduce them to pure vowels, the meaning changes ( e.g., /a ɪ /, / ɔɪ /) Pipe PopBoil Bowl Nonphonemic diphthongs —if you reduce them to pure vowels, the meaning doesn’t change ( e.g., /e ɪ /, /o ʊ / )
VII. CONSONANT** PRODUCTION A. Distinctive Features Is a feature absent or present? /b/ = -vocalic, +anterior, -nasal, -strident, +voice B. Place-Voice-Manner (review from 110) Voicing—voiced or voiceless Manner— how sound is produced Place— where sound is produced
VIII. VOWEL PRODUCTION** A. Tongue Position –1. Tongue height –2. Tongue advancement B. Lip Rounding –1. Rounded –2. Unrounded
IX. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION** A. Introduction –IPA helps with allographs (E.g. /f/ allographs in tough, physical, taffy) B. Broad Transcription Virgules—slashes/b//n//t/ for phonemic transcription (abstract) Brackets for phonetic transcription [m] (actual production of the sound by the speaker)
C. Narrow Transcription** This uses diacritic markers Gives us more detail Especially helpful for accent clients, clients with hearing loss, cleft palate
X. SYLLABLES** Open syllable word ends in a vowel (free, my, hello) Closed syllable word ends in a consonant or consonant cluster (box, zipper, bed)
XI. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES/PATTERNS** A. Definition and Background Stampe first described phonological processes, or simplifications of adult sound productions that affect entire classes of sounds When my niece Jennifer was 2: “Aunt Nes” for “Aunt Celeste.” She was using weak syllable deletion, final consonant deletion, and an n/l substitution.
Today: (p. 90)** The term phonological pattern is preferred Stampe’s phonol. processes are normal in typically-developing children, but are a disorder when they persist beyond a certain age level After a normal age of disappearance, we use the term phonological pattern
C. Assimilation Patterns** Definition: One sound changes to resemble another sound, particularly a neighboring sound On the exam, I have not emphasized assimilation— too easily confused with other patterns. But I’ve seen it on the Praxis, so let’s do it. Regressive assimilation: Sound that changes precedes the sound that caused the change E.g., instead of saying “lack,” child would say /kæk/; instead of saying “yum!” the child would say /m ʌ m/
Progressive assimilation:** The sound that changes follows the sound that influences the change E.g., instead of saying “might,” the child says /ma ɪ m/; instead of saying “ghost,” the child says /go ʊ g/
Kinds of Assimilation** 1. Alveolartom totl ɪ p ɪ d 2. Nasalno ʊ z no ʊ nmap mam 3. Velark ʌ p k ʌ kdag gog 4. Labialbo ʊ t bo ʊ pma ʊ θ ma ʊ m 5. Prevocalic voicingta ɪ t da ɪ t 6. Postvocalic devoicingfliz flis
D. Syllable Structure Patterns (modify the syllabic structure of words)** 1. Weak/unstressed syllable deletion –Celeste Lesttomato me ɪ do 2. Epenthesis —insertion of schwa between 2 consonants (Mark: Stepuhney/Stepney) 3. Reduplication (partial or complete) Repetition of a syllable Complete = baba/bottle****
Syllable structure patterns continued:** 7. Cluster reduction: deletion or substitution of some or all members of a cluster Cluster deletion: deletion of one or all members of a cluster. Total cluster reduction: all members of the cluster deleted (-æp/flæp) Partial cluster reduction: some members of a cluster are deleted (fæp/flæp)
Usually…** The marked (more difficult) sound is deleted Underline the marked sound SpoonPostjust Squirrelblackbowl Prettygladtrip
Again, marked is harder; unmarked is easier;transcribe Dr. R’s production phonetically:** Squirrel Truck Spit Stone Brain Pray
Syllable structure patterns continued:** Cluster substitution: another sound replaces one or all members of the cluster Examples: twi/tri, pwiz/pliz, bun/spun Pwiz take me to the twi!