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INTRODUCTION: PERSPECTIVES IN SPEECH SOUND DISORDERS (chapter 3)

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1 INTRODUCTION: PERSPECTIVES IN SPEECH SOUND DISORDERS (chapter 3)

2 Welcome to SPHP 126! We’re going to have a great semester.

3 In this class… I will be building bridges between SPHP 112 (Language Science), SPHP 126 (Speech Sound Development and Disorders), Phonetics/Speech Science (SPHP 110), and SPHP 125 (Child Language Disorders)

4 We will take all those floating puzzle pieces of knowledge And begin to fit them together!

5 We’ll do a fair amount of phonetic transcription in class… But it will not be graded

6 My new favorite website for phonetic symbols: The Sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet soundsipa.htm

7 Remember that attendance and notetaking are very important

8 I. WHAT IS A SPEECH SOUND DISODER? (from ch. 1 — not required reading) Speech sound disorder Phonological disorder Articulation disorder

9 Back in the old days…. Our field used the terms phonological disorder and articulation disorder

10 Articulation Disorder

11 Phonological Disorder

12 A youtube example of a speech sound disorder “Articulation disorder connected speech sample” Even though she is only 3, she should be more intelligible than this

13 II. IMPORTANCE OF INTELLIGIBILITY

14 Even a mild disorder can have an impact….

15 Often…

16 New research article October 2014:** Macrae, T., & Tyler, A.A. (2014). Speech abilities in preschool children with speech sound disorder with and without co- occurring language impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 45,

17 Macrae & Tyler 2014:** Compared preschool children with co- occurring SSD and language impairment (LI) to children with SSD only Looked at numbers and types of errors in both groups

18 Macrae and Tyler 2014 found:

19 III. BRIEF REVIEW OF ANATOMY This is from my visible body app on my iPad Just listen and let the information wash over you—this is a review from the fall—I won’t test you on it

20 IV. PHONETICS: BASIC DEFINITIONS** A. Definition of Phonetics Study of physical, physiological, and acoustic variables associated with speech sound production B. Clinical/Applied phonetics (other types of phonetics on p. 80 are not on test 1) Branch dedicated to practical application of knowledge

21 C. Phoneme** Family of sounds that the listener perceives as belonging to the same category-- /t/ D. Allophone Not a distinct phoneme; allophone is a member of a particular phoneme family t eabu tt erle t charac t er

22 E. Morphemes

23 Please underline the free morpheme and circle/highlight the bound morphemes: Magically Estimated Uncool Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious Dreaming Unconventionally Predisposition

24

25 F. Minimal pairs

26 G. Morphophonemics** Morphophonemic rules specify how sounds are combined to form morphemes Morphophonemics: sound alterations that result from the modification of free morphemes

27 Examples of morphophonemic rules:** If a noun ends in a voiced sound, use plural allomorph /z/ (tails, bags, pins) If a noun ends in a voiceless sound, use plural allomorph /s/ (tarts, cops, lakes) If a word ends in a voiceless sound, the past tense is pronounced /t/; if a word ends in a voiced sound, the past tense is pronounced /d/ cookedbuzzed

28 V. Suprasegmental Aspects of Speech A. Juncture

29 B. Rate of Speech

30 We often tell adult accent clients to MOOSE:

31 C. Intonation

32 VI. PHONEME CLASSIFICATION A. Consonants

33 B. Vowels** Produced with an open vocal tract 1. Pure vowels (e.g., /a/, /i/, / ɪ /) 2. Diphthongs (e.g., /o ʊ /, /a ɪ /, /a ʊ /) Phonemic diphthongs —if you reduce them to pure vowels, the meaning changes ( e.g., /a ɪ /, / ɔɪ /) Pipe  PopBoil  Bowl Nonphonemic diphthongs —if you reduce them to pure vowels, the meaning doesn’t change ( e.g., /e ɪ /, /o ʊ / )

34 VII. CONSONANT** PRODUCTION A. Distinctive Features Is a feature absent or present? /b/ = -vocalic, +anterior, -nasal, -strident, +voice B. Place-Voice-Manner (review from 110) Voicing—voiced or voiceless Manner— how sound is produced Place— where sound is produced

35 1. Place

36 Place (continued)

37 2. Manner (how)

38 Manner (continued)

39 VIII. VOWEL PRODUCTION** A. Tongue Position –1. Tongue height –2. Tongue advancement B. Lip Rounding –1. Rounded –2. Unrounded

40 IX. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION** A. Introduction –IPA helps with allographs (E.g. /f/ allographs in tough, physical, taffy) B. Broad Transcription Virgules—slashes/b//n//t/ for phonemic transcription (abstract) Brackets for phonetic transcription [m] (actual production of the sound by the speaker)

41 C. Narrow Transcription** This uses diacritic markers Gives us more detail Especially helpful for accent clients, clients with hearing loss, cleft palate

42 X. SYLLABLES** Open syllable word ends in a vowel (free, my, hello) Closed syllable word ends in a consonant or consonant cluster (box, zipper, bed)

43 XI. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES/PATTERNS** A. Definition and Background Stampe first described phonological processes, or simplifications of adult sound productions that affect entire classes of sounds When my niece Jennifer was 2: “Aunt Nes” for “Aunt Celeste.” She was using weak syllable deletion, final consonant deletion, and an n/l substitution.

44 Today: (p. 90)** The term phonological pattern is preferred Stampe’s phonol. processes are normal in typically-developing children, but are a disorder when they persist beyond a certain age level After a normal age of disappearance, we use the term phonological pattern

45 For example:

46 Many people today….** Use the terms phonological process and phonological pattern interchangeably

47 B. Substitution Patterns.

48 Substitution patterns (continued)

49

50

51 C. Assimilation Patterns** Definition: One sound changes to resemble another sound, particularly a neighboring sound On the exam, I have not emphasized assimilation— too easily confused with other patterns. But I’ve seen it on the Praxis, so let’s do it.  Regressive assimilation: Sound that changes precedes the sound that caused the change E.g., instead of saying “lack,” child would say /kæk/; instead of saying “yum!” the child would say /m ʌ m/

52 Progressive assimilation:** The sound that changes follows the sound that influences the change E.g., instead of saying “might,” the child says /ma ɪ m/; instead of saying “ghost,” the child says /go ʊ g/

53 Kinds of Assimilation** 1. Alveolartom  totl ɪ p  ɪ d 2. Nasalno ʊ z  no ʊ nmap  mam 3. Velark ʌ p  k ʌ kdag  gog 4. Labialbo ʊ t  bo ʊ pma ʊ θ  ma ʊ m 5. Prevocalic voicingta ɪ t  da ɪ t 6. Postvocalic devoicingfliz  flis

54 D. Syllable Structure Patterns (modify the syllabic structure of words)** 1. Weak/unstressed syllable deletion –Celeste  Lesttomato  me ɪ do 2. Epenthesis —insertion of schwa between 2 consonants (Mark: Stepuhney/Stepney) 3. Reduplication (partial or complete) Repetition of a syllable Complete = baba/bottle****

55 Syllable structure patterns continued

56 Syllable structure patterns continued:** 7. Cluster reduction: deletion or substitution of some or all members of a cluster Cluster deletion: deletion of one or all members of a cluster. Total cluster reduction: all members of the cluster deleted (-æp/flæp) Partial cluster reduction: some members of a cluster are deleted (fæp/flæp)

57 Usually…** The marked (more difficult) sound is deleted Underline the marked sound SpoonPostjust Squirrelblackbowl Prettygladtrip

58 Again, marked is harder; unmarked is easier;transcribe Dr. R’s production phonetically:** Squirrel Truck Spit Stone Brain Pray

59 Syllable structure patterns continued:** Cluster substitution: another sound replaces one or all members of the cluster Examples: twi/tri, pwiz/pliz, bun/spun Pwiz take me to the twi!

60 Remember that our goal:


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