Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION: PERSPECTIVES IN SPEECH SOUND DISORDERS (chapter 3)"— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION: PERSPECTIVES IN SPEECH SOUND DISORDERS (chapter 3)
Welcome to SPHP 126! We’re going to have a great semester.
In this class… I will be building bridges between SPHP 112 (Language Science), SPHP 126 (Speech Sound Development and Disorders), Phonetics/Speech Science (SPHP 110), and SPHP 125 (Child Language Disorders)
We will take all those floating puzzle pieces of knowledge And begin to fit them together!
We’ll do a fair amount of phonetic transcription in class… But it will not be graded
My new favorite website for phonetic symbols: The Sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet soundsipa.htm
Remember that attendance and notetaking are very important
I. WHAT IS A SPEECH SOUND DISODER? (from ch. 1 — not required reading) Speech sound disorder Phonological disorder Articulation disorder
Back in the old days…. Our field used the terms phonological disorder and articulation disorder
A youtube example of a speech sound disorder “Articulation disorder connected speech sample” Even though she is only 3, she should be more intelligible than this
II. IMPORTANCE OF INTELLIGIBILITY
Even a mild disorder can have an impact….
New research article October 2014:** Macrae, T., & Tyler, A.A. (2014). Speech abilities in preschool children with speech sound disorder with and without co- occurring language impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 45,
Macrae & Tyler 2014:** Compared preschool children with co- occurring SSD and language impairment (LI) to children with SSD only Looked at numbers and types of errors in both groups
Macrae and Tyler 2014 found:
III. BRIEF REVIEW OF ANATOMY This is from my visible body app on my iPad Just listen and let the information wash over you—this is a review from the fall—I won’t test you on it
IV. PHONETICS: BASIC DEFINITIONS** A. Definition of Phonetics Study of physical, physiological, and acoustic variables associated with speech sound production B. Clinical/Applied phonetics (other types of phonetics on p. 80 are not on test 1) Branch dedicated to practical application of knowledge
C. Phoneme** Family of sounds that the listener perceives as belonging to the same category-- /t/ D. Allophone Not a distinct phoneme; allophone is a member of a particular phoneme family t eabu tt erle t charac t er
Please underline the free morpheme and circle/highlight the bound morphemes: Magically Estimated Uncool Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious Dreaming Unconventionally Predisposition
F. Minimal pairs
G. Morphophonemics** Morphophonemic rules specify how sounds are combined to form morphemes Morphophonemics: sound alterations that result from the modification of free morphemes
Examples of morphophonemic rules:** If a noun ends in a voiced sound, use plural allomorph /z/ (tails, bags, pins) If a noun ends in a voiceless sound, use plural allomorph /s/ (tarts, cops, lakes) If a word ends in a voiceless sound, the past tense is pronounced /t/; if a word ends in a voiced sound, the past tense is pronounced /d/ cookedbuzzed
V. Suprasegmental Aspects of Speech A. Juncture
B. Rate of Speech
We often tell adult accent clients to MOOSE:
VI. PHONEME CLASSIFICATION A. Consonants
B. Vowels** Produced with an open vocal tract 1. Pure vowels (e.g., /a/, /i/, / ɪ /) 2. Diphthongs (e.g., /o ʊ /, /a ɪ /, /a ʊ /) Phonemic diphthongs —if you reduce them to pure vowels, the meaning changes ( e.g., /a ɪ /, / ɔɪ /) Pipe PopBoil Bowl Nonphonemic diphthongs —if you reduce them to pure vowels, the meaning doesn’t change ( e.g., /e ɪ /, /o ʊ / )
VII. CONSONANT** PRODUCTION A. Distinctive Features Is a feature absent or present? /b/ = -vocalic, +anterior, -nasal, -strident, +voice B. Place-Voice-Manner (review from 110) Voicing—voiced or voiceless Manner— how sound is produced Place— where sound is produced
2. Manner (how)
VIII. VOWEL PRODUCTION** A. Tongue Position –1. Tongue height –2. Tongue advancement B. Lip Rounding –1. Rounded –2. Unrounded
IX. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION** A. Introduction –IPA helps with allographs (E.g. /f/ allographs in tough, physical, taffy) B. Broad Transcription Virgules—slashes/b//n//t/ for phonemic transcription (abstract) Brackets for phonetic transcription [m] (actual production of the sound by the speaker)
C. Narrow Transcription** This uses diacritic markers Gives us more detail Especially helpful for accent clients, clients with hearing loss, cleft palate
X. SYLLABLES** Open syllable word ends in a vowel (free, my, hello) Closed syllable word ends in a consonant or consonant cluster (box, zipper, bed)
XI. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES/PATTERNS** A. Definition and Background Stampe first described phonological processes, or simplifications of adult sound productions that affect entire classes of sounds When my niece Jennifer was 2: “Aunt Nes” for “Aunt Celeste.” She was using weak syllable deletion, final consonant deletion, and an n/l substitution.
Today: (p. 90)** The term phonological pattern is preferred Stampe’s phonol. processes are normal in typically-developing children, but are a disorder when they persist beyond a certain age level After a normal age of disappearance, we use the term phonological pattern
Many people today….** Use the terms phonological process and phonological pattern interchangeably
B. Substitution Patterns.
Substitution patterns (continued)
C. Assimilation Patterns** Definition: One sound changes to resemble another sound, particularly a neighboring sound On the exam, I have not emphasized assimilation— too easily confused with other patterns. But I’ve seen it on the Praxis, so let’s do it. Regressive assimilation: Sound that changes precedes the sound that caused the change E.g., instead of saying “lack,” child would say /kæk/; instead of saying “yum!” the child would say /m ʌ m/
Progressive assimilation:** The sound that changes follows the sound that influences the change E.g., instead of saying “might,” the child says /ma ɪ m/; instead of saying “ghost,” the child says /go ʊ g/
Kinds of Assimilation** 1. Alveolartom totl ɪ p ɪ d 2. Nasalno ʊ z no ʊ nmap mam 3. Velark ʌ p k ʌ kdag gog 4. Labialbo ʊ t bo ʊ pma ʊ θ ma ʊ m 5. Prevocalic voicingta ɪ t da ɪ t 6. Postvocalic devoicingfliz flis
D. Syllable Structure Patterns (modify the syllabic structure of words)** 1. Weak/unstressed syllable deletion –Celeste Lesttomato me ɪ do 2. Epenthesis —insertion of schwa between 2 consonants (Mark: Stepuhney/Stepney) 3. Reduplication (partial or complete) Repetition of a syllable Complete = baba/bottle****
Syllable structure patterns continued
Syllable structure patterns continued:** 7. Cluster reduction: deletion or substitution of some or all members of a cluster Cluster deletion: deletion of one or all members of a cluster. Total cluster reduction: all members of the cluster deleted (-æp/flæp) Partial cluster reduction: some members of a cluster are deleted (fæp/flæp)
Usually…** The marked (more difficult) sound is deleted Underline the marked sound SpoonPostjust Squirrelblackbowl Prettygladtrip
Again, marked is harder; unmarked is easier;transcribe Dr. R’s production phonetically:** Squirrel Truck Spit Stone Brain Pray
Syllable structure patterns continued:** Cluster substitution: another sound replaces one or all members of the cluster Examples: twi/tri, pwiz/pliz, bun/spun Pwiz take me to the twi!