3 The IPA vowel chartThis is a stylized representation of the inside of the mouthIt showsthe cardinal vowelsmarked by black dotsand the approximate position of vowels common in many languagesThe next slide shows the position of English vowels on the same kind of chart
4 Aspiration in Mandarin is phonemic pʰ and p are two different phones; two different soundsbut in Mandarin they are different phonemes/pʰa/ (ㄆㄚ) and /pa/ (ㄅㄚ) represent different meaningsin English pʰ and p do not help to distinguish meaningThere are no minimal pairs like pʰa and paSlant brackets are used for phonemic transcriptions //Square brackets are used for phonetic transcriptions This is an important pointWe will return to it later
5 So what is a phoneme?A phoneme is a member of the set of sounds of a particular languageA phoneme can be spoken in different ways, depending onthe other sounds near it, in the utterance (context)the local accent or dialectthe person speakingThese different realizations (different ways) are the allophones of the phonemeA phoneme can be distinguished from every other phonemeYou do this by checking that a minimal pair exists
6 Economy of effort: allophonic differences within one syllable The vowels in ㄢ and ㄤ are different (front and back) because the speaker is preparing for the following consonantThe consonants /k/ in kit and cat differ slightly because the speaker is preparing for the following vowel. Tongue position for the first is further forwardWhy do these allophonic differences exist?In language, as in life, people are lazy!It is logical that tongue movement should be minimizedAs long as people can understand what we are saying!
7 Economy of effort: assimilation Another syllable or word influences pronunciation, in rapid speechHow do you pronounce 根本?This is an example of progressive assimilationWhat about 多少錢This is an example of elision
8 Assimilation in English and French Usually it’s regressiveA phoneme is changed to accommodate (match) the next phoneme.VoicingNewspaper, of course, have toNews has /z/; newspaper has [s] to accommodate the following /p/French avec /avek/ in avec vous /aveg vu/ “with you”
9 Assimilation of place of articulation /tem/ in ten minutes/iƷ/ in is she?For more examplesRead about assimilation at