Presentation on theme: "Major branches of phonetics 1. Experimental – How are speech sounds studied? 2. Articulatory – How are speech sounds produced? 3. Acoustic – What is the."— Presentation transcript:
Major branches of phonetics 1. Experimental – How are speech sounds studied? 2. Articulatory – How are speech sounds produced? 3. Acoustic – What is the nature of sound? 4. Perceptual – How are speech sounds perceived? 5. Applied – What is the practical application of all of the above?
Branches of Applied Phonetics 1. Normative – standards of speech 2. Clinical – remediation of artic/phonology 3. Linguistic – analysis and classification of speech sounds
Dynamics of speech Co-articulation – the brain anticipates what sounds are coming and articulators assume expected positions. Assimilation – the effects of co-articulation. Progressive Regressive Reciprocal Errors are sometimes made by the brain that are assimlatory “Lisplacence”
Variations in pronunciation Complementary distribution: when the pronunciation of a phoneme is context-specific /p/ is heavily aspirated in the initial position of words – “pie,” less aspirated following another consonant – “spy” Free variation: when the pronunciation of a phoneme is variable in the same context /p/ in the final position is unaspirated UNLESS followed by a word that begins with a vowel – “cup” vs. “cup of water.”
Phonetics Vocabulary Terms 1.Phone – any sound produced by the vocal tract 2.Phoneme – a speech sound of a particular language 3.Allophone – an alternate form or variation of a phoneme
1. Graph – any letter of a language 2. Grapheme – a letter of a particular language 3. Allograph – a variant form (lower case vs. upper case letters)
1. Morph – the smallest unit of meaning of a language 2. Morpheme – the smallest unit of meaning of a particular language free morpheme bound morpheme 3. Allomorph – a variant of a morpheme (past tense forms; regular and irregular)
Why use IPA? “ghoti” What symbols do you already know? /b/, /d/, /f/, /g/, /h/, /k/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /r/, /s/, /t/, /v/, /w/, /z/ Five vowel symbols that you THOUGHT you knew! /a/, /o/, /u/, /i/, /e/
Rude Boat Veto Pond Baseball Knew
Metaphonological Awareness How many syllables? University Exceptional Investigation Thanksgiving Belong How many sounds? Where is stress?