Presentation on theme: "Law of Contrariness "Our chief want in life is somebody who shall make us do what we can. Having found them, we shall then hate them."— Presentation transcript:
1Law of Contrariness "Our chief want in life is somebody who shall make us do what we can. Having found them, we shall then hate them for it." Ralph Waldo Emerson
2Tyler’s Four Questions Ralph Tyler (1971) concluded that whendeveloping curriculum, planning instruction,and assessing learning, there are fourprimary questions:What is the purpose of the lesson?(2) What experiences are necessary to achieve the purpose?(3) How do you organize the experiences into meaningful learning?(4) What evidence is available to determine if you accomplished the purpose?
5Selected Principles of Learning: Constructivism Piagetian Theory—Summarized (Jean Piaget)
6Humans are “Sensing” Beings Seeing (visual)Hearing (auditory)Touching (tactile; kinesthetic)SmellingTastingHumans perceive “stimuli” (information) from the environment through their five senses
7PerceptionsPerceptions are formed as one “experiences” the world.
8MemoryOne’s ability to perceive new information is essential to memory.
9Concepts. . . And, without memory or the ability to remember one cannot form concepts, e.g., “mental pictures” about how things work.
10“Concept Formations” = Cognitive Schemata Cognitive Schemata are bundles or “chunks” of knowledge and understanding into which new data (stimuli) are “integrated” as they are received from the environment (i.e., when new experiences occur).Cognitive “Hooks” or “Scaffolds”***Note: Schemata is plural and Schema is singular
11Cognitive schemata are essential for “permanent learning” to occur, and for higher order learning and thinking to take place.
19Other Selected Principles of Learning Carroll’s Five Variables for LearningThe Carroll model: A 25-year retrospective and prospective view (Carroll, 1989).
20AptitudeA student’s aptitude determines the amount of time one needs to learn a given task, unit of instruction, or curriculum to an acceptable criterion of mastery under optimal conditions of instruction and student motivation.
21Opportunity to LearnThe amount of time allowed for learning, for example, by a school schedule, a course, or a program.
22PerseveranceThe time and effort that a student is willing to spend on the learning; in this sense, it becomes an operational definition of motivation for learning.
23Quality of Instruction The learners must be clearly told what they are to learn (i.e., measurable instructional objectives).They must be put into adequate contact with learning materials, and the steps in learning must be carefully planned and ordered.
24Quality of Instruction (cont’d) If these factors are less than optimal, the time needed for learning is increased, and the quality of learning may be less than optimal.
25Ability to Understand Instruction This includes language comprehension as well as the learners’ ability to figure out for themselves what the learning task is and how to go about learning it.
26THE POPHAM MODEL: Determining Educational Needs… Desired Current AnStatus of Status of = EducationalLearners Learners Need
27Measurable Instructional Objectives that are stated in Behavioral Terms What the student will be able to do as a result of the instruction (TSWBAT)?More directly, what the student will be able to do on Friday that they could not do on Monday?
28Mager’s Rules for Writing Measurable Instructional Objectives 1) Identify and Name the Student Behavior Sought2) Define any Important Conditions Under Which the Behavior is to Occur3) Define a Level of Acceptable PerformanceSpecify the BEHAVIOR, the CONDITION, and the DEGREE of acceptable performance when writing the objective.
29ACTION VERBSUse words that describe the student behavior that is to be demonstrated (observed).The Action Verb should represent one of the six levels of the Cognitive Domain.
30BLOOM’S TAXONOMY: A VOCABULARY FOR WRITING OBJECTIVES Cognitive DomainKnowledgeComprehensionApplicationAnalysisSynthesisEvaluation
31EXAMPLES OF ACTION VERB USE VAGUEThe student will beable to . . .doknowunderstandBETTERThe student will beable tolistcomparedemonstratesummarizepreparecritique
32Ralph W. Tyler’s Legacy: The Goal-Attainment Model Goal-SourcesStudentSocietySubject MatterGoal-ScreensPhilosophy of EducationPsychology of Learning