Presentation on theme: "Learning and Educational Technology. Objectives To look into some principles of learning relevant to educational technology To discuss the four revolutions."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives To look into some principles of learning relevant to educational technology To discuss the four revolutions in education To explain the Dale cone of experience To list some general rules in use of the teaching aids
Gagne events of instruction Gaining and controlling attention Informing of expected outcome in clear specific terms Stimulating recall or reevaluate capacities and information Providing feedback and assessing terms and performance Making provisions for transferability of and ensuring retention o learned behavior
Gagne’s Nine Events of Learning Instructional Event Internal Mental Process 1. Gain attention Stimuli activates receptors 2. Inform learners of objectives Creates level of expectation for learning 3. Stimulate recall of prior learning Retrieval and activation of short-term memory 4. Present the content Selective perception of content 5. Provide "learning guidance" Semantic encoding for storage long-term memory 6. Elicit performance (practice) Responds to questions to enhance encoding and verification 7. Provide feedback Reinforcement and assessment of correct performance 8. Assess performance Retrieval and reinforcement of content as final evaluation 9. Enhance retention and Retrieval and generalization of learned skill to new transfer to the job situation
Different modes of teaching Tutoring Lecturing Recitation Participatory Discussion Field assignment
Different Media Laboratory Oral communication Pictures, films, more media Educational technology choice of effective the media to suit instructional mode
Senses are the gateways to acquiring knowledge We learn 1.0 percent through taste 1.5 percent through touch 3.5 percent through smell 11.0 percent through hearing 83.0 percent through sight
We remember 20 percent of what e hear 30 percent f what we see 50 percent of what we see and hear 80 percent of what we say 90 percent of what we say and do
Visual literacy Group of vision competencies one can develop by seeing an at the same time hearing and integrating other sensory verbal and learning experiences
Audio visual aids different types of tools that appeal to sense of hearing and vision and are used in classrooms for presentation of variety of information Connotes both process or experiences Referred to as educational communication technology, audio visual media, learning resource, instructional media education media
The four revolution in education by Eric Ashby The first revolution occurred when societies began to differentiate adult roles and tasks of educating the young was shifted from parents to teachers, to school to home
The second revolution was the adoption of the written word as a tool of education. Prior to that time of oral instruction prevailed and was with reluctance that writing was permitted to co exists with the spoken word in the classroom
Third revolution came with the invention of printing and the subsequent wide availability of books.
Fourth revolution is the development of electronic sets involving radio, television tape recorder and computer. Behavioural scientists have joined the fourth revolution and have pointed to the importance of defining leaning objectives and suggesting ways in which natural learning process can be utilized in the presentation of subject matter by employing vast resources
Definition of Educational Technology Educational technology is development application and evaluation of systems techniques and aids in the field of learning It encompasses educational objectives, media and their characteristics, criteria for selection of media and resources, management of resources and evaluation.
Psychology of using Teaching Aids I hear, I forget; I see, I remember; I do, I understand. Effective learning emphasize the importance of first- hand concrete experiences involving sensory contacts as the starting point of learning which later on proceeds towards greater and greater abstraction
Dale cone of experience Projected Aids more effective than non projected aids Effectiveness increases Direct experience most effective Teaching Aids non projected Words, words words Least effective method
Three stages in a learning process when an education is used to supplement the ordinary teaching Preparing the pupils for the learning experience reinforcing the values while the pupils are sharing the experience Relating the experience with the lesson and thus stimulating further learning The aids must be adapted to the intellectual maturity of the pupil and to the nature and extent of their previous experience
There is no best aid which has all the advantages; visual aids suffer from some psychological limitations. The teacher should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various uses of sensory aids
The visual aids should not be considered as substitute for oral and written methods of acquiring knowledge. They should be used to supplement the classroom teaching
Visual instruction in the classroom should no be confused with entertainment, the effective use of an aid depends primarily on the careful planning of the teacher
In all cases, the time and effort on the use of a particular aid in presence to others must always be justified.