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The Renaissance The Beginning of the Modern Period: A Period of Transition.

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1 The Renaissance The Beginning of the Modern Period: A Period of Transition

2 Two Major Divisions of the Renaissance

3 The Italian Renaissance  The Italian Renaissance (occurred first) Involved the city-states of northern Italy and Rome  Florence  Venice  Milan  Pisa  Sienna

4  The Italian Renaissance tended to be more secular with a greater emphasis on worldly pursuits the humanities the arts  Wealth and power  Knowledge was the key (classical knowledge) The humanities

5 Petrarch- the “father” of Renaissance humanism  The Italian poet, Petrarch

6 The Northern Renaissance  The Northern Renaissance occurred later Involved the regions of Northern Europe England Spain France Germanic regions (Holy Roman Empire) The Netherlands

7 Northern Renaissance  The spread of the Renaissance was delayed in Northern Europe War and political unrest  Hundred Years’ War  War of the Roses in Britain- civil war  Civil conflicts in France  Divisions in the Holy Roman Empire (German regions) Plague and famine

8 “renaissance” means rebirth The Renaissance began a period of renewed interest and engagement with “classical” (Greco-Roman) learning, culture, literature, art, architecture, values, style, etc.

9 Major Themes of the Renaissance  Humanism (both secular and religious) Stressed human potential, human progress, expansion of human knowledge  Secularism-greater emphasis on non-religious values, pursuits, and interests  Individualism-focus on the unique qualities, abilities, and potential of the individual person

10 Major Historical Movements of the Renaissance  Age of Exploration (Period of European Expansion)  Protestant Reformation and the Religious Wars  Scientific Revolution- Rise of Modern Science  The Rise of the Modern Nation-State

11 Background of the Renaissance- High and Late Middle Ages What happened during the period of the High and Late Middle Ages that would lay the groundwork for the Renaissance?

12  Increased trade and commercial activity during the High Middle Ages  Urbanization-growth of cities and towns  Commercial and business developments (banking)  Middle class merchant elite developed  Decline in feudalism  A decline in the Church’s hold and control on society and government  Growth in vernacular literature/growing literacy  Rise of universities and the expansion of learning

13 The Birthplace of the Renaissance  The city-states of Northern Italy  Florence was the center of the Renaissance  Italy was politically fragmented and the city-states often fought for power and control  City-states came to be ruled by wealthy and powerful business people (not necessarily nobility) Signori- (despots) oligarchies (group of individuals) maintained order


15 Florence Major center of trade banking cloth production the arts




19 The Medici family of Florence  The most powerful family of the Italian Renaissance  Came to power through business dealings and banking Bankers of the Vatican and the papacy Spent tremendous amounts of money supporting the arts and cultural development (patrons) as well as science Medici power often involved corruption and intrigue

20 The Medici Family




24 Medici Pope

25 “ The Journey of the Magi” depicts the Medici family in procession - Celebration of Medici power and influence

26 Italian Renaissance Literature

27 Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince  Machiavelli was from Florence  Well educated in the classics  Career was in public service and he eventually served as the ambassador to France  Favored republican rule over despotism  Machiavelli was tortured and imprisoned for a time when Medici rule was reinstated after a conflict with a Spanish mercenary army  He retired to the country and wrote The Prince

28 The Prince  Written in Italian (not Latin)  Observations and commentary on political rule and power (Medicis)  Addressed the issue of effective rule How to gain and maintain order and control  Stressed the practical (pragmatic) over the ethical or moral More secular and humanistic  Challenged the idea of a social order based on God’s will  Political science- Politics was to be governed by its own laws  “…it is safer to be feared than to be loved…”


30 The Courtier by Castiglione 1528  Written in Italian  Treatise on the training of young men in the courtly ideal of a Renaissance gentleman  Stressed the value of education and manners  Influenced social mores and norms during the period


32 Renaissance Art A reflection of Renaissance ideals and values Emphasis on the classical style and classical themes Humanistic - with an emphasis on the individual Religious art remained very important

33 Characteristics of Renaissance Art Realism- three-dimensional Balanced and ordered- geometric /mathematical balance Portraits- focus on the individual person Landscapes and attention to depictions of nature Classical style Depiction of classical themes, stories, characters

34 Humanism: The School of Athens by Raphael - a celebration of classical learning

35 Individualism –Portraits -portraits celebrated the unique qualities and personality of the individual person (two examples by Leonardo da Vinci)


37 Secularism-non-religious- Botticelli’s Primavera (Spring) Renaissance art often depicted stories and scenes from classical literature

38 The Birth of Venus

39 Religion remained a major focal point of Renaissance art - The Sistine Chapel-Michelangelo

40 Michelangelo’s Pieta

41 Michelangelo’s statue of David

42 Raphael


44 Renaissance surrealism


46 The Renaissance spread to Northern Europe

47 Focus of the Northern Renaissance  The focus of the Renaissance in Northern Europe was more religious  Many sought religious reform and a return of the Church to its true mission and spirituality  Many were highly critical of the worldliness and corruption in the Church and papacy

48  Northern Renaissance humanists believed that education and literacy were key to social and religious reform  Advocated the translation of the scriptures into the vernacular languages

49 Major figures of the Northern Renaissance Northern Renaissance Humanists (Christian)

50 Desiderius Erasmus –scholar and theologian

51 Erasmus- 1446-1536  Dutch (the Netherlands)  Biblical scholar and educator  Believed that the Bible was at the center of the Christian faith  Stressed Christian education and access to the scriptures (for everyone) Believed that people should be able to read the scriptures for themselves  Highly critical of papal abuses and worldliness The Praise of Folly

52 The Praise of Folly – a condemnation of Church and papal abuses and worldliness

53 Illustration from Praise of Folly

54 Sir Thomas More 1478-1535

55 Sir Thomas More  Lord Chancellor of England during the reign of Henry VIII- highest political office in England  Lawyer and scholar  Works reflect a commitment to the values and mandates of Scripture and the Church  Wrote Utopia – explored the idea of a “perfect” society  Executed by Henry VIII for refusing to agree to the king and Parliament’s Act of Supremacy

56 First edition copy of Utopia

57 Early illustration from Utopia

58 Sir Thomas More and family by Hans Holbein

59 Martin Luther 1483-1546  German  Critical of Church corruption and abuses sale of indulgences 95 Theses - 1517  Sought to reform the Church  Wrote the first German translation of the Bible

60 William Shakespeare 1564-1616  English playwright and poet  Many of his major works are an expression of Renaissance values of honor, heroism, and the struggle against “fate” and fortune  His view of man’s capacity for evil and self-destruction contrasted with the Renaissance humanistic ideal of humanity

61 The Globe Theater in London


63 Michele de’Montaigne 1533-1592

64 Montaigne  French humanist and writer  Associated with the rise of modern skepticism  Highly critical of the religious intolerance and violence associated with the Reformation  Advocated for political calm and greater tolerance within the Christian faith  A politique- religious and political moderate  Questioned the power of human reason – skepticism  Father of the modern essay form of writing

65 Northern Renaissance Art

66 Albrecht Durer



69 Hans Holbein



72 Bruegel





77 Bosch




81 Major innovations of the Renaissance

82 Printing Press  1455  Moveable type printing  Developed in Germany  Associated with Gutenberg  1456 the first Gutenberg Bible was printed  Printing press allowed for the spread of knowledge and ideas throughout Europe



85 The Clock  The idea of quantification developed  The universe came to be conceived in more quantifiable terms (measurable terms)  Allowed for more precise measurements  Changed the focus of daily life which had been guided by the rhythms of the Church


87 The Renaissance brought a new way of thinking and living to Europe A new worldview was emerging The medieval Christian worldview was giving way to a more MODERN (secular and humanistic) view of the world and humanity

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