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The Renaissance The beginning of the Modern Period A period of transition.

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Presentation on theme: "The Renaissance The beginning of the Modern Period A period of transition."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Renaissance The beginning of the Modern Period A period of transition

2 “renaissance” means rebirth The Renaissance began a period of renewed interest and engagement with “classical” (Ancient Greece and Rome) learning, culture, literature, art, style, etc.

3 How did the Renaissance change thought? Before Focus on Afterlife The Individual not important Little focus on learning and the arts “Dark” Ages Age of “Faith” After Focus on this life The Individual is important Focus on learning the “Classics” (The Iliad, Aristotle) to inspire learning and the arts “Rebirth” Age of Reason

4 Two Major Divisions of the Renaissance

5 The Italian Renaissance  The Italian Renaissance (occurred first) Focused on the city-states of northern Italy and Rome  The Italian Renaissance tended to be more worldly with a great emphasis on secular pursuits, the humanities, and the arts  Wealth and power  Knowledge was the key

6 Renaissance: Italy  Major trading cities: Milan, Florence, Genoa, Venice  Florence wealthy from wool and banking Medici family were bankers with political power  Hired artists and architects to make Florence great

7 Often called the “Father” of Renaissance humanism  The Italian poet, Petrarch

8 Renaissance: People  Focus on humans and their abilities and actions (humanism) Machiavelli wrote The Prince Said rulers should be mean instead of nice “End justifies the Means”

9 Humanism 9  Really an old idea from Ancient Greece and Rome  Based on the Socratic and Platonic ideas of observation and reasoning  Idea that man, not God, was the center of the universe  Man controls his own destiny  Man can learn about and understand his world by observation and reason without God’s help  Helped spark a new age of secular learning and the development of early modern schools and universities such as Oxford and Cambridge  Led many to question both governments and the institutional Church

10 The Northern Renaissance  The Northern Renaissance occurred later Involved the regions of Northern Europe England Spain France Germanic regions (Holy Roman Empire) The Netherlands

11 Northern Renaissance  The spread of the Renaissance was delayed in Northern Europe War and political unrest  Hundred Years’ War  War of the Roses in Britain Plague and famine

12 Major Themes of the Renaissance  Humanism (both secular and religious) Human potential, human progress, expansion of human knowledge  Secularism-greater emphasis on non-religious values and concerns  Individualism-focus on the unique qualities and abilities of the individual person

13 Major Historical Events of the Renaissance Period  Age of Exploration (Period of European Expansion)  Protestant Reformation and the Religious Wars  Scientific Revolution- Rise of Modern Science  The Rise of the Modern Nation-state

14 Background of the Renaissance- High and Late Middle Ages  Increased trade and commercial activity during the High Middle Ages  Urbanization-growth of cities and towns  Commercial and business developments (banking)  Middle class merchant elite developed  Decline in feudalism  A decline in the Church’s hold and control on society and government  Growth in vernacular literature/growing literacy  Rise of universities and the expansion of learning

15 The Birthplace of the Renaissance  The city-states of Northern Italy  Florence was the center of the Renaissance  Italy was politically fragmented and the city-states often fought for power and control  City-states came to be ruled by wealthy and powerful business people (not necessarily nobility) Signori- (despots) and oligarchies (group of individuals) maintained order

16 Florence Major center of trade, banking, cloth production, and the arts

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19 The Medici family of Florence  The most powerful family of the Italian Renaissance  Came to power through business dealings and banking Bank of the Vatican and the papacy Spent tremendous amounts of money supporting the arts and cultural development (patrons) Medici power often involved corruption and intrigue

20 The Medici Family

21 Medici Pope

22 “The Adoration of the Magi” depicts the Medici family in procession - Celebration of Medici power and influence

23 Niccolo Machiavelli ( ) The Prince  Machiavelli was from Florence  Well educated in the classics  Career was in public service and he eventually served as the ambassador to France  Favored republican rule over despotism  Machiavelli was tortured and imprisoned for a time when Medici rule was reinstated after a conflict with a Spanish mercenary army  He retired to the country and wrote The Prince

24 The Prince  Written in Italian (not Latin)  Observations and commentary on political rule and power (Medicis)  Addressed the issue of effective rule How to gain and maintain order and control  Stressed the practical (pragmatic) over the ethical or moral More secular and humanistic  Challenged the idea of a social order based on God’s will  Political science- Politics was to be governed by its own laws  “…it is safer to be feared than to be loved…”

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26 The Courtier by Castiglione 1528  Written in Italian  Treatise on the training of young men in the courtly ideal of a Renaissance gentleman  Stressed the value of education and manners  Influenced social mores and norms during the period

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28 The Renaissance spread to Northern Europe

29 Focus of the Northern Renaissance  The focus of the Renaissance in Northern Europe was more religious  Many sought religious reform and a return of the Church to its true mission and spirituality  Many were highly critical of the worldliness and corruption in the Church and papacy  Northern Renaissance figures believed that education and literacy were key to social and religious reform  Advocated the translation of the scriptures into the vernacular languages

30 Major figures of the Northern Renaissance

31 Desiderius Erasmus –scholar and theologian  The Praise of Folly Criticism of the abuses and worldliness of the Church and papacy

32 Sir Thomas More  Lord Chancellor of England during the reign of Henry VIII- highest political office in England  Lawyer and scholar  Wrote Utopia – explored the idea of a “perfect” society  Eventually executed by Henry VIII for refusing to agree to the king and Parliament’s Act of Supremacy

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34 Utopia

35 Martin Luther  Associated with the Protestant Reformation  Critical of Church corruption and abuses  Sought reform  Wrote the first translation of the Bible in German

36 Renaissance Art A reflection of Renaissance ideals and values Emphasis on the classical style and classical themes Humanistic - with an emphasis on the individual Religious art remained very important

37 Characteristics of Renaissance Art Realism Three-dimensional Balanced and ordered Portraits Landscapes and attention to depictions of nature Classical style Depiction of classical themes and stories

38 Humanism: The School of Athens by Raphael - a celebration of classical learning

39 Individualism –Portraits -portraits celebrated the unique qualities and personality of the individual person (two examples by Leonardo da Vinci)

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41 Secularism-non-religious Renaissance art often depicted stories and scenes from classical literature

42 Religion remained a major focal point of Renaissance art - The Sistine Chapel-Michelangelo

43 Michelangelo’s Pieta

44 Northern Renaissance Art

45 Albrecht Durer

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48 Hans Holbein

49 Bruegel

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51 Major innovations of the Renaissance

52 Printing Press  1455  Moveable type printing  Developed in Germany  Associated with Gutenburg  1456 the first Gutenburg Bible was printed  Printing press allowed for the spread of knowledge and ideas throughout Europe

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55 The Clock  The idea of quantification developed  The universe came to be conceived in more quantifiable terms (measurable terms)  Allowed for more precise measurements  Changed the focus of daily life which had been guided by the rhythms of the Church

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57 The Renaissance brought a new way of thinking and living to Europe A new worldview was emerging The medieval Christian worldview was giving way to a more MODERN (secular and humanistic) view of the world and humanity


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