PersonInventionDate James Watt1 st steam engine1775 Eli WhitneyCotton gin, changeable parts for muskets 1793, 1798 Robert FultonRegular steamboat1807 Samuel F.B.Telegraph1836 Elias HoweSewing machine1844 Isaac SingerImproves& markets sewing machine 1851 Cyrus FieldTransatlantic cable1866 Alexander BellTelephone1876 Thomas EdisonPhonograph, light bulb1877, 1879 Nikola TeslaElectric motor1888 Rudolf DieselDiesel engine1892 Orville and Wilbur Wright Airplane1903 Henry FordModel T ford1908, 1913
Thinkers Adam Smith- Author of Wealth of Nations. A large supporter of capitalism. Economist contemporary thought was mostly derived from his work Thomas Malthus- Condition of working class could not be improved. David Ricardo- Believed the same as Malthus. Jeremy Bentham- Sought to create codes of scientific law. Robert Owen- Founder of Owenism. Believed a human being placed in the right surroundings their character can be improved. Charles Founder- Believed that industrial order ignored the passionate side of the human nature. Karl Marx- Founder of Marxism; became deeply involved in Hegelian philosophy. Friedrich Engels- Author of Conditions of the Working Class. George Hegel- Founder of Hegelian economics; believed people were class- driven.
Rulers George II1727-1760 George III1760-1820 George IV1820-1830 William IV1830-1837 Victoria1837-1901 Edward VI1901-1910 George V1910-1936
Wars The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars (1789- 1815) Isms Capitalism and socialism
Industrial Revolution, cont. During the second revolution Belgium, France and Germany underwent major expansion. -Railway systems spurred economic growth. First industrial revolution: textiles, steam and iron. Second industrial revolution: steel, chemical, electricity and oil. (scientific research) - Henry Bessemer discovered a new process for manufacturing steel cheaply in large quantities. Population trends: Europeans- 266 mil. 1850 to 401 mil. In 1900 and 477 in 1910. Solvay process: allows recovery of more chemical by-products and increased production in sulfuric acid and laundry soap. First major power plant constructed in 1881. International combustion engine was invented in 1886.
Romanticism Romanticism, in its various manifestations, was a reaction against much of the thought of the Enlightenment. Some of the famous thinkers who emerged in this time period were Immanuel Kant, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Two other “-isms” that came out of Romanticism were Neo-Gothicism and Methodism. Neo-Gothicism was renewed artistic and architectural form reflecting the original gothic art of the mid-12 th century. Methodism was a new denomination of Christianity, started by John and Charles Wesley.
Romantic Books Two important works that came out of the Romantic Era were Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant and Faust by Goethe. Other important authors/poets include Coleridge (The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and other poems), Wordsworth (The Prelude and other poems), Percy and Mary Shelley (Frankenstein and numerous poems), Byron (known for many short poems), and Keats.
Nationalism and Liberalism Nationalism was based on the concept that a nation is composed of people who are joined together by the bonds of common language, as well as common customs, culture, and history; and who should be administered by a common government. Liberalism: Nineteenth-century European conservatives regarded “liberal” as anyone or anything that challenged their own political, social, or religious values. They derived their political ideas from the Enlightenment writers. They sought to establish a political framework of legal equality, religious toleration, and freedom of the press. Their general goal was limiting the power of the government. Events: Greek Revolution of 1821: Greeks rebelling against the Ottoman Turks; the conservatives helped (although the revolution itself was liberal) because the revolution was in the positive interest of all of Europe. Serbian Independence: Serbia also sought independence form the Turks; national identity built by guerilla warfare against Ottomans. Latin American Independence movements
The Conservative Order in 19 th Century Europe Legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, established churches Resistance to popular sovereignty, liberalism, nationalism Remained the dominating force in 19 th century politics Key figures Edmund Burke - “founder of modern conservatism” Klemens von Metternich – feared nationalist uprising in Austria
The Conservative Order in 19 th Century Europe Metternich (Habsburg Empire), Frederick William III (Prussia) avoid major reform. Prussia: Council of State (1817), diets (1823) France – Bourbon Restoration – Louis XVIII Agrees to constitutional monarchy Charter of 1814: bicameral legislature Postwar repression in Britain Combination Acts (1799) outlaw workers’ organizations Peterloo Massacre - Manchester, England, 1819 Six Acts – Anti – sedition/radicalism Carlsbad decrees in Germany In response to Burschenschaften (banned) Concert of Europe
Revolutions of 1848 Causes: Food shortages Economic depression, unemployment Discontented working class allied w/liberals seeking political change Nationalism
Revolutions of 1848 France – Febuary Revolution: Louis Philippe abdicates; Second Republic; ‘June Days;’ Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Habsburg Empire – Vienna uprising (emancipation) + Magyar Revolt Czech nationalism (Pan – Slavism) Rebellion in N. Italy
Age of Nation-States Italian Unification Mazzini – nationalist leader Cavour becomes premier – 1852 Garibaldi + ‘Red Shirts’ occupy Sicily and Naples – 1860 Victor Emmanuel II becomes King of Italy – 1861 Italy annexes Venetia in 1866 (after defeat of Austria in Seven Weeks’ War), Rome in 1870 German Unification Otto von Bismarck becomes Prime Minister of Prussia – 1862 Prussia defeats Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) German Empire formed in 1871
Age of Nation-States Crimean War Russia vs. Ottoman Empire + Great Britain/France Treaty of Paris - 1856 Allied victory; led to end of Concert of Europe Habsburg Empire: dual monarchy February Patent – constitution for Austrian Empire – adopted; forms Reichsrat - bicameral imperial parliament (1861) Franz Joseph I’s 1867 compromise w/Hungary forms dual monarchy, gives it autonomy France – Third Republic Franco – Prussian War: Napoleon III surrenders at Battle of Sedan (1870) Paris commune (1871) Dreyfus affair (1890s)
Age of Nation-States 19 th century Britain: William Ewart Gladstone (PM 1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894) Liberal Education Act of 1870 Supported Irish home rule (Home Rule Bills defeated in 1886 and 1892) Benjamin Disraeli (PM 1874 – 1880, 1868) Conservative Second Reform Bill – 1867 Public Health Act of 1875
Socialism in 19 th Century Western Europe 1848: Marx and Engels publish the Communist Manifesto 1864: First International founded in London 1875: German Social Democratic Party founded 1878: Bismarck's Anti-Socialist legislation 1884: British Fabian Society founded 1889: Second International founded in Paris 1895: Confederation General du Travail founded in France
New Imperialism The usual pattern of the New Imperialism was for a European nation to invest capital in a “less industrialized” country, to develop its mines and agriculture, build roads, bridges, harbors and telegraph systems. While countries took varying approaches to investing in African land, King Leopold II’s methods were some of the harshest, as seen in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.
WWI and Aftermath Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: March 3, 1918. Russia yielded Poland, the Baltic State and the Ukraine, allowing for Russia’s exit from the war. Big Four: David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson —the leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference following the end of WWI. The League of Nations (LON) was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.
WWI and Aftermath Balfour Declaration: "They are autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations." Treaty of Versailles: Peace treaty of WWI, ending the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. Clause 231: The “Guilt Clause” of the Treaty of Versailles. Germany was assigned responsibility for the damage caused by WWI, given a reparation of 269 billion gold marks (equivalent to more than 50% of the gold ever mined on Earth, or about $834 billion in 2012).