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The Red Cross Red Crescent Movement

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1 The Red Cross Red Crescent Movement

2 What do you know about the Red Cross Red Crescent Movement?
The ideals of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement are represented all over the world, not just through the physical witness of our work in countless towns, villages, and neighbourhoods but also by influencing the minds and hearts of people. We are widely perceived as a “public good”: available to everyone and everywhere, to prevent and reduce human suffering. All that we do and say is inspired by the Fundamental Principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality. These are underpinned by shared values, relating to people, integrity, partnership, diversity, leadership, and innovation, that guide how we work.

3 Brief historic background
1863 International Committee for Relief of the Wounded (later ICRC) formed National Committees for Relief of Wounded Soldiers established 1864 Geneva Convention for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded in armies in the field 1899 The Hague Conventions - laws and customs of war on land 1919 League of Red Cross Societies (renamed IFRC in 1991) founded in Paris to improve public health following the First World War. 1859 Henry Dunant witnesses the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino in northern Italy A brief history: Henry Dunant witnesses the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino in northern Italy International Committee for Relief of the Wounded (later ICRC) formed, National Committees for Relief of Wounded Soldiers established, the 1st International Conference held. League of Red Cross Societies (renamed IFRC in 1991) founded in Paris to improve public health following the First World War.

4 Brief historic background
1949 The four Geneva Conventions are adopted covering wounded and sick, prisoners of war and civilians in enemy territories. 2009 150th anniversary since the Battle of Solferino, 90th anniversary of the IFRC, 60th anniversary of the Geneva Conventions. The 4 Geneva Conventions were adopted covering wounded and sick, prisoners of war and civilians in enemy territories.

5 The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
187 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies worldwide International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), founded in 1919 International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), founded in 1863 The world’s largest humanitarian network The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), 187 National Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) together form the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. The Movement works in cooperation with governments, donors and other aid organizations to assist vulnerable people affected by natural and manmade disasters, as well as by conflicts around the world. As partners, the different members of the Movement also support communities in becoming stronger and safer through a variety of development projects and humanitarian activities. National Societies come together globally in the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) to represent our shared beliefs and joint efforts, knowing that the chances of improving the lives of vulnerable people are increasingly influenced by the globalising forces of an interconnected and interdependent world. Headquartered in Geneva, the International Federation is guided by our Constitution and governed by the General Assembly of all recognised National Societies that decides on our policies and the rules and obligations of membership. This convenes every two years and elects a President and a Governing Board to oversee our work in between General Assembly meetings. The International Federation is a component of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement which also includes National Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) The Statutes and Strategy of the Movement define specific roles, strengthen cooperation and coherence between components, enhance their shared identity, and lift their combined effectiveness and efficiency in service of humankind. Every two years, the Council of Delegates brings the Movement together to consider common action and advocacy. The International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent is held every four years to bring the Movement together with the world's states signatory to the Geneva Conventions to deliberate on major humanitarian issues.

6 The Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
Humanity - prevent and alleviate human suffering Impartiality - non-discrimination and proportionality Neutrality- retain credibility by not taking sides Independence - autonomy with respect to all powers Voluntary service - disinterested relief movement Unity - only one National Society per country Universality - equal rights for all National Societies Essential Principles Supporting Principles (allow us to be humane and impartial) Institutional – guide our operational activities Humanity The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, born of a desire to bring assistance without discrimination to the wounded on the battlefield, endeavours, in its international and national capacity, to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found. Its purpose is to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. It promotes mutual understanding, friendship, cooperation and lasting peace amongst all peoples. Impartiality It makes no discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. It endeavours to relieve the suffering of individuals, being guided solely by their needs, and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress. Neutrality In order to enjoy the confidence of all, the Movement may not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a political, racial, religious or ideological nature. Independence The Movement is independent. The National Societies, while auxiliaries in the humanitarian services of their governments and subject to the laws of their respective countries, must always maintain their autonomy so that they may be able at all times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement. Voluntary service It is a voluntary relief movement not prompted in any manner by desire for gain. Unity There can be only one Red Cross or Red Crescent Society in any one country. It must be open to all. It must carry on its humanitarian work throughout its territory. Universality The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, in which all societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities and duties in helping each other, is worldwide.

7 12 recognised Pacific National Societies :
Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, New Zealand, Micronesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu 2 National Societies in formation: Tuvalu and Marshall Islands Branches of the French and American Red Cross Societies

8 Are autonomous organisations
National Societies Are autonomous organisations Follow local law, their own constitution and the government decree which created them Are the only humanitarian organizations in each country that are auxiliaries to their governments Are NOT non governmental organisations The work of National Societies is carried out by millions of local Red Cross and Red Crescent volunteers and members around the world. These committed individuals are on the front line, delivering humanitarian assistance and supporting vulnerable communities to become stronger and more resilient. National Societies support their public authorities as independent auxiliaries to government in the humanitarian field. In wartime, National Societies also assist affected civilian populations and support army medical services, where appropriate. National Society Membership Must be open to all Grassroots representation Responsible for policy and long term direction Mission – to alleviate suffering wherever it may be found (knowledge can be obtained from members and assistance provided impartially)

9 Members/Volunteer committees / groups
National level Management Governance assistance Communicate needs representation Intermediate level Local Community level National Society Members Legal owners of the organisation Large numbers is a sign of popular support and organisation’s strength A source of funding A source of volunteers Governments pay attention to orgs with large membership base Membership obligations in NS to adhere to and disseminate the Fundamental Principles to promote the work of the National Society to recognise and obey the statutes to pay the annual subscription to participate actively in the work of the National Society Membership rights in NS to elect and be elected to governing bodies to participate and vote in the governance meetings to present proposals and raise issues with any authority in the National Society Members/Volunteer committees / groups M V = volunteers M = members

10 National Societies provide services such as:
Enabling healthy and safe living Disaster risk reduction and resilience building Community-based health and care First aid training Water, sanitation and hygiene promotion Climate change adaptation Disaster response and recovery – to save lives and protect livelihoods Early warning and emergency assessments Relief supplies and clean water, food First Aid & Health in emergency, hygiene promotion Emergency shelter Restoring family links Disaster preparedness and response : In the Pacific NS (national societies) are also building up their Disaster preparedness (DP) to be ready to better response During emergency response, NS are providing food only when Government can not cover the needs. Disaster response and recovery example : From 2004 to 2011, 160 million people were supported by 600,000 Red Cross and Red Crescent volunteers in disaster response operations. Health activities example: For example: National Red Cross Red Crescent Societies reached more than 17.8 million people with HIV prevention activities in 2010.

11 National Societies provide services such as:
Promoting social inclusion and peace Promotion of the practical application of the Fundamental Principles Integration of disadvantaged people into their communities Migrant and refugee services Reduction of social and domestic violence For example: The Red Cross Red Crescent has reached more than 2,000 young people with themes such as non-discrimination, intercultural dialogue, and violence prevention and mitigation in 125 countries.

12 The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
We are a secretariat that exists to provide support to and linkages between our 187 member National Societies We provide international coordination services in response to large-scale disasters and health emergencies We provide international representation, resource mobilization and advocacy We support the capacity building of our National Societies Making a difference around the world Through its 187 Red Cross and Red Crescent member National Societies, IFRC is a global humanitarian organization that acts before, during and after natural and manmade disasters at the community level in non-conflict situations. IFRC’s relief operations are combined with development work, including disaster risk reduction programmes, health and care activities, and the promotion of humanitarian values. In particular, it supports programmes on prevention and fighting the spread of diseases, such as HIV, tuberculosis, avian influenza and malaria. IFRC also works to combat discrimination and violence, as well as assisting migrants irrespective of their legal status. The IFRC has a secretariat in Geneva, a permanent observer delegation at the United Nations in New York, an office in Brussels and five zone offices in: Europe and Central Asia: Budapest Asia Pacific: Kuala Lumpur Africa: Johannesburg Middle East and North Africa: Amman Americas: Panama These zones place personnel and resources closer to the vulnerable communities served by the IFRC and its members.

13 The International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC)
Relief to civilians and wounded combatants Visit prisoners of war Restore contact between family members Remind warring parties of their responsibilities under the law of war ICRC supports National Societies in : Relief to victims and wounded combatants Educate the public and particular audiences on IHL

14 International Humanitarian Law
rules - restrictions on the use of weapons and methods of warfare protects people who are not, or no longer, participating in war protects human dignity limit suffering during times of war

15 What are the three emblems?
1859: Prior to the nineteenth century, the symbols used to identify armed forces' medical services varied according to their country of origin. The symbols were not generally well known, were rarely respected and were not entitled to any form of legal protection. On the second half of the nineteenth century, the rapid development in firearms technology led to a dramatic increase in the number of dead and wounded during wartime. On 24 June 1859, the War of Italian Unification was raging. Henry Dunant, a Swiss citizen, was on a private trip that took him to the town of Solferino. There, he witnessed the misery of more than 45,000 soldiers abandoned, dead or wounded, on the battlefield. Back in Geneva, Henry Dunant started writing a book proposing drastic improvements in the assistance afforded to war victims : In 1862, “A Memory of Solferino” was published. The book puts forward two proposals: to set up in peacetime and in every country volunteer groups to take care of casualties in wartime; to get countries to agree to protect first aid volunteers and the wounded on the battlefield; The first proposal was the origin of the National Societies that now exist in 183 countries; and the second was the origin of the Geneva Conventions now signed by 195 States. 1863: On 17 February 1863, a five-member committee, the future International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), met to study Dunant’s proposals. One of its main objectives was to adopt a single distinctive symbol backed by the law to indicate respect for army medical services, volunteers with first aid societies and the victims of armed conflicts. The symbol needed to be simple, identifiable from a distance, known to everyone and identical for friend and foe. The emblem had to be the same for everyone and universally recognizable. On 26 October 1863, the first International Conference was convened. It included delegates from 14 governments. In addition to adopting ten resolutions, which provided for the establishment of relief societies for wounded soldiers - the future Red Cross and, later, Red Crescent Societies - it also adopted the red cross on a white background as the uniform distinctive emblem : In August 1864, the Diplomatic Conference, convened for the purpose of transforming the resolutions adopted in 1863 into treaty rules, adopted the First Geneva Convention. Modern international humanitarian law was born. The First Geneva Convention recognized the red cross on a white background as the single distinctive emblem. Since the emblem was to reflect the neutrality of the armed forces' medical services and the protection conferred on them, the emblem adopted was formed by reversing the colours of the Swiss flag. Switzerland's permanent neutral status had been firmly established in practice for several years, and had been confirmed by the Treaties of Vienna and Paris in Furthermore, the white flag was and remains a symbol of the wish to negotiate or to surrender; firing on anyone displaying it in good faith is unacceptable. The resulting symbol had the advantage of being easily produced and recognizable at a distance because of its contrasting colours. : During the war between Russia and Turkey, the Ottoman Empire declared that it would use the red crescent on a white background in place of the red cross. While respecting the red cross symbol, the Ottoman authorities believed that the red cross was, by its very nature, offensive to Muslim soldiers. The red crescent was temporarily accepted for the duration of this conflict.

16 1929: After the First World War, the 1929 Diplomatic Conference was called to revise the Geneva Conventions. The Turkish, Persian and Egyptian delegations requested that the red crescent and the red lion and sun be recognized. After lengthy discussions, the Conference agreed to recognize them as distinctive emblems in addition to the red cross; but in order to avoid any proliferation of emblems, it limited the authorization to the three countries that already used them. The three distinctive emblems enjoy equal status under the Geneva Conventions. Today, 153 National Societies use the red cross and 32 the red crescent : The Diplomatic Conference convened in 1949 to revise the Geneva Conventions in the aftermath of the Second World War studied three proposals for a solution to the question of the emblems: a proposal from the Netherlands for a new single symbol; a proposal to revert to using a single red cross symbol; a proposal from Israel for the recognition of a new emblem, the red shield of David which was used as the distinctive symbol of the Israeli armed forces’ medical services; All three proposals were rejected. The conference expressed its opposition to the proliferation of protective emblems. The red cross, the red crescent and the red lion and sun remained the recognized emblems : The Islamic Republic of Iran declared that it was waiving its right to use the red lion and sun and would use the red crescent as its distinctive symbol. However, it reserved the right to return to the red lion and sun should new emblems be recognized : Debate about the emblems continued after the 1949 decision. A number of countries and their relief societies still wanted to use national emblems, or both the cross and crescent together. By the 1990s, there was also concern about respect for the neutrality of the red cross or red crescent in certain difficult conflicts. In 1992, the then president of the ICRC called publicly for the creation of an additional emblem devoid of any national, political or religious connotation : The 1999 International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent endorsed the proposal that a joint working group of States and National Societies on the emblems should be formed to find a comprehensive and lasting solution acceptable to all parties in terms of substance and procedure : The Working Group realized that a majority of States and National Societies were deeply attached to the red cross and red crescent emblems. Thus, the only way of finding a widely accepted solution was to adopt a third additional emblem, devoid of any national, political or religious connotation. The design of the new emblem should enable a National Society using it to: insert a cross or a crescent; insert a cross and a crescent side by side; insert any other symbol that is in use and has been communicated to the depositary State of the Geneva Conventions and the ICRC. 2005: In December 2005 during the Diplomatic Conference in Geneva, the States adopted Protocol III additional to the Geneva Conventions, creating an additional emblem alongside the red cross and red crescent. The new emblem - known as the red crystal - resolves several issues that the Movement has faced over the years, including: the possibility for countries unwilling to adopt the red cross or the red crescent to join the Movement as full members by using the red crystal; the possibility of using the red cross and the red crescent together. 2006: In June 2006, an International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent met in Geneva to amend the statutes of the Movement to take into account the creation of the new emblem : On 14 January 2007, the Third Additional Protocol to the 1949 Geneva Conventions entered into force (six months after the two first countries ratified it). This completes the process of establishing an additional emblem for use by Governments and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

17 legally regulated under international and domestic law and are
Emblems legally regulated under international and domestic law and are universally recognised as symbols that offer protection Frequently asked questions: 1. What are the origins of the red cross emblem? The "five-member" Committee (the future ICRC) met in 1863 to study Dunant's proposals aimed at improving assistance for war victims. The adoption of a distinctive sign was one of its objectives. This sign, or emblem, would indicate legal protection for: a. the medical services of armed forces, b. volunteer aid workers and c. victims of armed conflict. The sign had to be simple, identifiable from a distance, known to everyone and identical for friends and enemies alike. A diplomatic conference held in Geneva in 1864 adopted the heraldic emblem of the red cross on a white ground, the colours of the Swiss flag in reverse. 2. What does the emblem mean? What are the two different uses of the emblem? The emblem has existed for over a century, as the visible sign of the protection afforded under IHL to certain categories of people affected by armed conflicts and to those providing them with humanitarian aid. It also symbolizes the neutrality, independence and impartiality of the Movement and its components. The emblem, therefore, serves two very different purposes. It may be used: as a protective device; or as an indicative device. 3. Why the red crystal? An additional distinctive emblem, the red crystal on a white ground, was recognised in 2005 by the diplomatic conference that adopted the third Additional Protocol in order to improve the protection conferred to victims of armed conflicts, medical services of armed forces and humanitarian personnel, as well as to achieve universality of the Movement. As defined by Article 2 of the third Additional Protocol, it consists of “a red frame in the shape of a square on edge on a white ground”. The name "Red Crystal" is not contained in the Protocol, but it was endorsed by the international community through the adoption of Resolution 1 of the 29th International Conference of June 2006 (paragraph 2). - > See also ICRC's website "About the adoption of an additional emblem": questions and answers: 4. How to recognise emblem misuses? The term "misuse" of the emblem" is interpreted so as to cover the following three different types of misuse: Imitation: the use of a sign which, owing to its shape and/or colour, may be confused with the emblem; Improper use: the use of the emblem by people usually authorized to do so, but in a manner inconsistent with IHL provisions on its use; the use of the emblem by entities or persons not entitled to do so (commercial enterprises, pharmacists, private doctors, NGOs, ordinary individuals, etc.) or for purposes that are inconsistent with the Fundamental Principles of the Movement; Perfidious use: the use of the emblem during an armed conflict to protect combatants or military equipment when carrying out hostile acts. When this is done wilfully and causes death or serious injury to body or health, perfidious use of the emblem qualifies as a war crime in both international and non-international armed conflicts. 5. How to tackle emblem misuses? In case of emblem misuses, the National Society/ICRC contacts the violator; raises awareness of the impact such a misuse could have on National Society/ICRC action and on the action of the whole Movement; reminds the relevant rules governing the use of the emblem (rationale of the emblem and the legal base); suggests possible solutions, e.g. the use of alternative emblems; and ensures follow-up until the misuse has stopped.

18 Those protected by the emblems: military medical personnel
military medical equipment (hospitals, ambulances) chaplains attached to military forces Red Cross Red Crescent personnel 6. Who are the main entitled users of the emblem (protective device)? In times of armed conflict: a. Medical services and religious personnel of State’s armed forces; b. Medical personnel and medical units and transports of NS (1) duly recognised and authorised by their governments to assist the medical services of the armed forces when they are (2) employed exclusively for the same purposes as the latter and (3) are subject to military laws and regulations; c. Civilian hospitals that are recognised as such by the State authorities and are authorised to display the emblem; d. All civilian medical units recognised and authorised by the competent authorities as defined under AP I; e. Other voluntary relief societies, subject to the same conditions as the ones defined above for NS; and f. the ICRC and the Federation. In times of peace: Medical services of armed forces, NS medical units and transports already assigned to medical purposes in the event of an armed conflict, The ICRC and the Federation (without restrictions). 7. Who are the main entitled users of the emblem (indicative device)? In times of armed conflict: a. National Societies b. The ICRC c. The Federation. In times of peace: a. National Societies; b. The ICRC; c. The Federation


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