Presentation on theme: "Introduction The present material is intended for general public use. All contents are available on the ICRC web-site: WWW.icrc.org. It may be viewed:"— Presentation transcript:
1 IntroductionThe present material is intended for general public use. All contentsare available on the ICRC web-site:It may be viewed:either as a standard powerpoint presentation, using the interactive structure;or with the included detailed speaker's notes.Welcome to this presentation on ICRC mandate and activities.You may decide to view it as a powerpoint presentation with only short comments on the slides, or with all detailed speaker's notes in this present form.
2 Even in war there are limits. About the ICRCMandateHistoryInternational Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementICRC worldwidePrinciplesInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationAbout the ICRCThe International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was founded nearly a century and a half ago. It seeks to preserve a measure of humanity in the midst of war. Its guiding principle is that even in war there are limits: limits on how warfare is conducted and limits on how combatants behave. The set of rules that were established with this in mind and endorsed by nearly every nation in the world is known as international humanitarian law, of which the Geneva Conventions are the bedrock.Even in war there are limits.
3 to provide them with assistance. About the ICRCMandateHistoryInternational Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementICRC worldwidePrinciplesInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationMandateThe ICRC - its mission, role and mandateThe International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an impartial, neutral and independent organization whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance. It directs and coordinates the international relief activities conducted by the Movement in situations of conflict. It also endeavours to prevent suffering by promoting and strengthening humanitarian law and universal humanitarian principles. Established in 1863, the ICRC is at the origin of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.To protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and;to provide them with assistance.
4 Born on a battlefield. About the ICRC Mandate History International Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementICRC worldwidePrinciplesInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationHistoryHistoryOn 24 June 1859 Henry Dunant, a Swiss citizen, passed through Solferino in Italy, where a bitter battle was taking place between the Austrian and French armies. Horrified by the sight of thousands of soldiers left to suffer for want of adequate medical services, he appealed to the local people to help him tend them, insisting that soldiers on both sides should be cared for. On his return to Switzerland, he published A Memory of Solferino, appealing for relief societies to be formed in peacetime, with nurses who would be ready to care for the wounded in wartime and for these volunteers, who would be called upon to assist the army medical services, to be recognized and protected through an international agreement.Born on a battlefield.
5 International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement About the ICRCMandateHistoryInternational Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementICRC worldwidePrinciplesInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationInternational Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementICRC:conflict.International Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementThe International Movement of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent is one of the largest humanitarian networks in the world with a presence and activities in almost every country. It is unified and guided by seven Fundamental Principles: humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality. All Red Cross and Red Crescent activities have one central purpose: to help those who suffer, without discrimination, and thus contribute to the maintenance and promotion of peace.The ICRC: in time of armed conflict or armed violenceThe ICRC is the Movement's founding body. In addition to carrying out operational activities to protect and assist victims of war , it is the promoter and guardian of international humanitarian law. It is also the guardian of the Fundamental Principles. In cooperation with the Federation it organizes the Movement's statutory meetings.National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies: any timeThey embody the work and the principles of the Movement in more than 180 countries. National societies act as auxiliaries to the public authorities of their own countries in the humanitarian field and provide a range of services including disaster relief and health and social programmes. In wartime, National Societies assist the affected civilian population and where appropriate, support the army medical services.The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies: natural and technological disastersThe International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies works on the basis of the Principles of the Movement to inspire, facilitate and promote humanitarian activities carried out by its member National Societies to improve the situation of the most vulnerable people. Founded in 1919, the Federation directs and coordinates international assistance of the Movement to victims of natural and technological disasters, to refugees and in health emergencies. It acts as the official representative of its member societies in the international field. It promotes cooperation between National Societies, and strengthens their capacity to prepare effectively for disasters and to carry out health and social programmes.Federation:natural disaster.Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies:any time.
6 Permanent presence in 79 countries. Operations in about 80. About the ICRCMandateHistoryInternational Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementICRC worldwidePrinciplesInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationICRC worldwideThe ICRC worldwideThe ICRC's work and scope are international: it maintained a permanent presence in 79 countries throughout the world. Its permanent delegations were distributed as follows:Africa: 30 Americas:Europe / Central Asia: 16Asia: 14Middle East: 11Essential support and back-up to its field operations is provided from its headquarters in Geneva, SwitzerlandPermanent presence in 79 countries.Operations in about 80.
7 Neutrality: toward parties to the conflict, not taking sides About the ICRCMandateHistoryInternational Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementICRC worldwidePrinciplesInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationPrinciplesHumanityThe International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, born out of a desire to bring assistance without discrimination to the wounded on the battlefield, endeavours in its international and national capcity, to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found. Its purpose is to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. It promotes mutual understanding, friendship, cooperation and lasting peace amongst all peoples.ImpartialityIt makes no discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. It endeavours to relieve the suffering of individuals, being guided solely by their needs, and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress.NeutralityIn order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all, the Movement may not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a political, racial, religious or ideological nature.IndependenceThe Movement is independent. The National Societies, while auxiliaries in the humanitarian services of their governments and subject to the laws of their respective countries, must always maintain their autonomy so that they may be able at all times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement.Humanity: to prevent and alleviate suffering of victims of armed conflicts and internal violenceImpartiality: toward victims, non-discrimination, assistance needs basedNeutrality: toward parties to the conflict, not taking sidesIndependence: not subordinate to a government or other organization
8 International Humanitarian Law About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationInternational Humanitarian LawInternational humanitarian law (IHL) in briefInternational humanitarian law is a set of rules which seek, for humanitarian reasons, to limit the effects of armed conflict. It protects persons who are not or are no longer participating in the hostilities and restricts the means and methods of warfare. International humanitarian law is also known as the law of war or the law of armed conflict.International humanitarian law and human rightsInternational humanitarian law and international human rights law are complementary. Both seek to protect the individual, though they do so in different circumstances and in different ways. Humanitarian law applies in situations of armed conflict, whereas human rights, or at least some of them, protect the individual at all times, in war and peace alike. While the purpose of humanitarian law is to protect victims by endeavouring to limit the suffering caused by war, human rights seek to protect the individual and further his development.Basic rules of international humanitarian law in armed conflicts(*)Persons hors de combat and those who do not take a direct part in hostilities are entitled to respect for their lives and their moral and physical integrity. They shall in all circumstances be protected and treated humanely without any adverse distinction.It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who is hors de combat.The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for by the party to the conflict which has them in its power. Protection also covers medical personnel, establishments, transports and equipment. The emblem of the red cross or the red crescent is the sign of such protection and must be respected.Captured combatants and civilians under the authority of an adverse party are entitled to respect for their lives,dignity, personal rights and convictions. They shall be protected against all acts of violence and reprisals. They shall have the right to correspond with their families and to receive relief.Everyone shall be entitled to benefit from fundamental judicial guarantees. No one shall be held responsible for an act he has not committed. No one shall be subjected to physical or mental torture, corporal punishment or cruel or degrading treatment.Parties to a conflict and members of their armed forces do not have an unlimited choice of methods and means of warfare. It is prohibited to employ weapons or methods of warfare of a nature to cause unnecessary losses or excessive suffering.Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants in order to spare civilian population and property. Neither the civilian population as such nor civilian persons shall be the object of attack. Attacks shall be directed solely against military objectives.* This text constitutes the quintessence of the provisions of international humanitarian law. It does not have the force of an international legal instrument and is in no way intended to replace the treaties in force. It is designed, to facilitate dissemination of international humanitarian law.Limit to the effects of armed conflict.Protection to persons who are not or are no longer participating.
9 Indicative use (small dimension) About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationEmblemIndicative use (small dimension)Protective use (large dimension)EmblemThe emblems of the Red Cross and Red Crescent are the linchpin of all humanitarian activity: they must protect both the victims and those who come to their aid.The protective value of the emblem has to be built up in peacetime, because it might well be too late to combat misuses of the emblem once hostilities have begun.Preventing imitation and improper use of the emblem in peacetime will then ensure that conflict victims are not abandoned to their fate and that those who come to their aid have the safety guarantees they need to do their work. Each and every one of us can preserve and strengthen the protective value of the emblem. We are all individually responsible for guaranteeing the protection afforded by an emblem which, tomorrow, might save our lives.The emblem as a symbol:Of protection (protective use)This is the essential purpose of the emblem: in times of conflict, it constitutes the visible sign of protection conferred by the Geneva Conventions. It is meant to show combatants that people (National Society volunteers, medical personnel, ICRC delegates, and so forth), medical units (hospitals, first-aid stations, etc.) and means of transport (by land, sea or air) are protected by the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols.The emblem, when used as a protective device, must arouse a reflex among combatants - one of restraint and respect. It must therefore be of large dimensions. 2. Of membership of the movement (indicative use)The indicative use of the emblem is designed to show, mainly in peacetime, that a person or object is linked to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement - whether to a National Red Cross or Red Crescent Society, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies or the International Committee of the Red Cross. In this case, the emblem must be smaller in size. The emblem also serves as a reminder that these institutions work in accordance with the Movement's Fundamental Principles,. it is therefore also a symbol of:Who is entitled to use the emblem ?1. In peacetimeIndicative use (small dimensions) NATIONAL RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES, first and foremost. They are authorized to use the emblem in accordance with their national legislation, which lays down the rules governing the indicative use of the emblem, and with the Movement's 1991 Regulations on the Use of the Emblem by National Societies. National Societies may carry out activities under the cover of the emblem only on condition that these are consistent with the Fundamental Principles and are therefore solely designed to provide voluntary and impartial assistance to all who suffer.National Societies may also use the emblem to support their own events or fundraising campaigns, under the terms of Article 23, paras. 1 and 2, of the Regulations on the Use of the Emblem. Third parties (e.g., commercial firms or other organizations) may be associated with such events or campaigns, but only insofar as they strictly comply with the conditions set out in Article 23, para. 3, and Articles 24 and 25 of the Regulations.AMBULANCES and FIRST-AID STATIONS operated by third parties may display the emblem as an indicative device, but only in peacetime and on condition that it is used in conformity with national legislation, that the National Society has expressly authorized such use, and that the aid stations are exclusively designed to provide treatment free of charge.Protective use (large dimensions) NATIONAL SOCIETY MEDICAL UNITS (hospitals, first-aid stations, and so forth) and TRANSPORTS (by land, sea or air), whose assignment to medical purposes in the event of an armed conflict has been decided, may already display the emblem as a protective device in peacetime, with the authorities' consent.The INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS and the INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES may use the emblem at all times (in peacetime as well as in times of armed conflict) and without restriction.2. In time of conflictIndicative use (small dimensions)NATIONAL RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES only. To avoid any confusion with the emblem used as a protective device, the emblem used indicatively may not be placed on arm lets or on the roofs of buildings.Protective use (large dimensions)MEDICAL SERVICES OF ARMED FORCES NATIONAL RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES, duly recognized and authorized by their governments to assist the armed forces' medical services. They may use the emblem for protective purposes, but only for personnel and equipment which assist the official military medical services in wartime, are employed exclusively for the same purposes as the latter, and are subject to military laws and regulations.CIVILIAN HOSPITALS that are recognized as such by the State and are authorized to display the emblem for protective purposes.ALL CIVILIAN MEDICAL UNITS (hospitals, first-aid stations, etc.) recognized and authorized by the competent authorities (this concerns only States party to Protocol I).OTHER VOLUNTARY RELIEF SOCIETIES, subject to the same conditions as National Societies: they must be duly recognized and authorized by the government; they may use the emblem only for personnel and equipment assigned to the medical services of the armed forces; and they are subject to military laws and regulations.Misuses of the emblemEach State party to the Geneva Conventions has an obligation to adopt measures to prevent and repress, at all times, any misuse of the emblem. It must, in particular, pass legislation on the protection of the red cross and red crescent emblems. Any use that is not expressly authorized by the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols constitutes a misuse of the emblem. The following are typical examples:1. ImitationUse of signs that may be confused with the red cross or red crescent emblem (e.g., similar colours or design).2. Improper useUse of the red cross or red crescent emblem by unauthorized bodies or persons (commercial firms, non-governmental organizations, individuals, private physicians, pharmacists, and so forth);Use of the emblem by people entitled to do so but who display it for purposes that are not consistent with the Movement's Fundamental Principles (e.g., someone authorized to display the emblem but who does so in order to cross borders more easily when off duty). Doctors, dispensaries, private clinics or pharmacies are not entitled to display the emblem. Use of the emblem for commercial purposes is not permitted3. Grave misuse (perfidy)Use of the red cross or red crescent emblem in wartime to protect armed combatants or military equipment (e.g., ambulances or helicopters marked with the emblem and transporting armed combatants; ammunition dumps masked with red cross flags) is considered a war crime.Abuses
10 Spreading knowledge of International Humanitarian Law. About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistancePreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationActivitiesActivitiesHumanitarian law, if properly respected, can do much to forestall the suffering of people in war. The ICRC spreads knowledge of that law and promotes its development. At the same time, it carries out practical activities to protect and assist people in need, working closely with Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies worldwide. In addition, the organization is currently building up its relations with the private sector.Spreading knowledge of International Humanitarian Law.Carrying out practical activities to protect and assist people in need.
11 spirit of the relevant bodies of law. About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionCivilian populationDetentionRestoring family linksAssistancePreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationProtectionProtection The ICRC's primary responsibility is to ensure respect for the spirit and the letter of international humanitarian law. Protecting people in situations of conflict or violence involves minimizing the dangers to which they are exposed, preventing or putting a stop to violations committed against them, upholding their rights and making their voices heard, and, finally, providing them with support.The concept of protection encompasses "all activities, aimed at obtaining full respect for the rights of the individual in accordance with the letter and the spirit of the relevant bodies of law (i.e. human rights, humanitarian law and refugee law). Human rights and humanitarian actors shall conduct these activities impartially and not on the basis of race, national or ethnic origin, language or gender".The concept of protection encompasses "all activities, aimed at obtaining fullrespect for the rights of the individual in accordance with the letter and thespirit of the relevant bodies of law.
12 Protection of the civilian population About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionCivilian populationDetentionRestoring family linksAssistancePreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationProtection of the civilian populationCivilians not taking part in the fighting must on noaccount be the object of attack and must be sparedand protected.Protection of the civilian populationProtection for the civilian population is the basic principle of humanitarian law; civilians not taking part in the fighting must on no account be the object of attack and must be spared and protected. The 1949 Geneva Conventions and their 1977 Additional Protocols contain specific rules to this effect. In situations that are not covered by these treaties, in particular internal disturbances, civilians are protected by the fundamental principles of humanitarian law and the "hard core" of human rights law.
13 Visiting people deprived of their liberty About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionCivilian populationDetentionRestoring family linksAssistancePreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationVisiting people deprived of their libertyPurposeThe aim of ICRC visits is to take preventive action and initiate a dialogue with the detaining authorities with a view to ensuring that people they hold are treated humanely.Visits to prisoners of war, civilian internees and any other individuals imprisoned on security grounds in a crisis situation constitute an important aspect of what is known as the ICRC's protection work. The purpose of ICRC visits is purely humanitarian: it is to preserve the physical and moral integrity of detainees, to prevent any abuse to which they may be subjected and to make certain that they enjoy decent material conditions of detention. The ICRC never questions the reason for a person's arrest.It should be emphasized, however, that it is up to the detaining authorities to ensure the protection of the people they take into custody and that they can be held accountable if they fail to do so.Conditions for ICRC visitsWhatever the circumstances, the ICRC visits people deprived of their freedom only if the authorities allow it:to see all prisoners who come within its mandate and to have access to all places at which they are held;to speak with prisoners in private, without any third parties being present;to draw up a list of prisoners during its visit whom it considers to come within its mandate, or to receive such a list from the authorities and to check and supplement it if necessary;to repeat its visits to all prisoners of its choice if it considers that the situation so warrants, and to do so as often as it wishes.The ICRC regularly provides the national authorities with a summary report on its findings over a given period or in a specific category of places of detention, which covers not only the problems identified but also any improvements observed or steps taken.Dialogue with the authorities, and not the systematic denunciation of violations of international law and the humanitarian principles, is the course of action adopted by the ICRC.Preventive action and dialogue with the detaining authorities witha view to ensuring that people they hold are treated humanely.
14 Restoring family links About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionCivilian populationDetentionRestoring family linksAssistancePreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationRestoring family linksRestoring family linksThe ICRC's Central Tracing Agency works to restore family links in all situations of armed conflict or internal violence. Each year, hundreds of thousands of new cases of people being sought by their relatives are opened, whether they concern displaced people, refugees, detainees or missing persons.When war breaks out families are torn apart, entire populations are displaced or forced into exile, children become separated from their parents, and soldiers are wounded, taken prisoner, reported missing or killed in action. The ICRC and the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies work, often together with other humanitarian agencies, to alleviate the human suffering arising from these situations - distributing Red Cross messages, organizing family reunifications, issuing temporary travel documents and capture cards, visiting persons deprived of their freedom, drawing up certificates of captivity and death certificates, and so on.Preservation of the family unit is a universal right guaranteed by law. The ICRC does everything possible to reunite people separated by conflict, by establishing their whereabouts and reuniting them with their families. Special attention is given to particularly vulnerable groups, such as unaccompanied children or elderly people.Preservation of the family unit is a universal right guaranteed by law.The ICRC does everything possible to reunite people separated by conflict
15 About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistanceEconomic securityWater & habitatHealthPreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationAssistanceAssistanceThe primary aim of ICRC assistance is to protect victims' lives and health, to ease their plight and to ensure that the consequences of conflict — disease, injury, hunger or exposure to the elements — do not jeopardize their future. While emergency assistance saves lives and mitigates the worst effects of conflict, the ICRC tries always to keep sight of the ultimate aim of restoring people's ability to provide for themselves.Assistance may take a variety of forms, depending on the region and the nature of the crisis. It may include the provision of food and/or medicine, but usually builds on the capacity to deliver essential services, such as the construction or repair of water-supply systems or medical facilities and the training of primary health care staff, surgeons and orthopaedic technicians.To protect victims' lives and health, to ease their plight and to ensure thatthe consequences of conflict do not jeopardize their future. Keeping sightof the ultimate aim of restoring people's ability to provide for themselves.
16 To ensure that the victims of war are able to maintain About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistanceEconomic securityWater & habitatHealthPreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationEconomic securityEconomic securityThe aim of the ICRC Economic Security Unit is to ensure that the victims of war are able to maintain or regain their economic security at the household level. In practice this is translated into three different types of humanitarian action: Economic support: to protect the vital means of production of conflict victims, so that they can maintain their productive capacity and economic self-sufficiency at the household level as much as possible;Survival relief: to protect the lives of conflict victims by giving them access to the economic goods essential to their survival when they can no longer obtain these by their own means;Economic rehabilitation: to support conflict victims to restore their means of production, and where possible, regain their economic self-sufficiency.To ensure that the victims of war are able to maintainor regain their economic security at the household level.
17 To assure victims access to water for drinking and for domestic use. About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistanceEconomic securityWater & habitatHealthPreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationWater and habitatWater and habitatThe ICRC Water and Habitat Unit aims to assure that victims of war have access to water for drinking and for domestic use, and to preserve the habitat that protects the population against environmental hazards. The ultimate goal is to contribute to a reduction in morbidity, mortality and suffering caused by a collapse of the water and habitat system.To assure victims access to water for drinking and for domestic use.Preservation of the habitat that protects the population againstenvironmental hazards..
18 To assure victims access to essential preventive and curative care About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistanceEconomic securityWater & habitatHealthPreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationHealth servicesHealth servicesThe ICRC Health Services Unit aims to assure that victims of war have access to essential preventive and curative care of a universally accepted standard. The ultimate objective is to contribute to a reduction in mortality, morbidity, suffering and disabilities caused by excessive needs or insufficient health care provision.To assure victims access to essential preventive and curative careof a universally accepted standard.
19 the victims and improve the security of humanitarian action About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistancePreventive actionPromotion of humanitarian lawICRC mine/unexploded ordnance awareness programmesHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationPreventive actionPreventive actionThe ultimate aim is to influence people's attitudes and behaviour so as to improve the protection of civilians and other victims in times of armed conflict, facilitate access to the victims and improve the security of humanitarian action.What does the ICRC's preventive action involve?The purpose of the preventive action is to limit suffering caused by war. The bulk of such work involves:* Promoting values such as tolerance, non-discrimination and the acceptance of others. * Spreading knowledge of humanitarian law, which cannot be applied unless it is known, and encouraging States to meet their commitments under the Conventions in that respect, with particular reference to the armed forces; and supporting National Society efforts in this field.* Carrying out activities to limit suffering, so as to minimize feelings of resentment and vengefulness, which often lead to new outbreaks of conflict. * Helping, as a neutral intermediary, to solve humanitarian problems caused by war and thereby facilitating the resumption of dialogue between the belligerents. * Helping victims regain a minimum of self-sufficiency through medical or agricultural assistance.In some respects the activities contribute indirectly to preventing conflicts. For instance, in the context of its cooperation with the National Societies, which operate in peacetime, it steps in before conflict erupts. However, it can exert a preventive influence only by addressing social causes (through National Society programmes in favour of the most vulnerable groups in society) and moral causes (through dissemination activities).The cannot take direct action to prevent conflict since that would involve taking a political stance, which would make it impossible for the institution to continue its humanitarian work.Cooperation for developmentAlthough some National Societies are strong in operational terms, many others lack the resources to undertake large-scale programmes and often need assistance in organizing themselves, training their staff, achieving priority goals and becoming self-financing.Development entails strengthening National Societies so that they can carry out their humanitarian tasks efficiently. Cooperation strengthens the development process through partnership.The Federation has primary responsibility for development cooperation at the international level. However, the Movement recognizes that certain specific and permanent activities are the responsibility of the ICRC:* technical and legal assistance in the setting-up or reconstitution of National Societies (NS);* support for NS programmes relating to dissemination of humanitarian law and the Fundamental Principles;* involving the NS in efforts to promote humanitarian law and ensure its implementation; * preparing the NS for their activities in the event of conflict by strengthening their operational capacity (tracing, dissemination, assistance, first aid, etc.); * helping to train NS officials in areas falling within the ICRC's mandate.The ICRC's peacetime roleEssentially this involves:* recognizing new National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies;* offering them structural and operational support (see box above);* by offering the services of its legal advisers, working for the development of humanitarian law and its dissemination among different target groups, including the armed forces and government officials;* as custodian of the Fundamental Principles, ensuring that they are respected;* running the Central Tracing Agency;* dealing with the aftermath of conflicts (providing orthopaedic services, etc.).To influence people's attitudes and behaviour so as to improve the protectionof civilians and other victims in times of armed conflict, facilitate access tothe victims and improve the security of humanitarian action
20 Promotion of humanitarian law About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistancePreventive actionPromotion of humanitarian lawICRC mine/unexploded ordnance awareness programmesHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationPromotion of humanitarian lawPromotion of humanitarian lawThe ICRC's preventive work is designed to contain the harmful effects of conflict and keep them to a minimum. The very spirit of international humanitarian law is to use force with restraint and in proportion to the objectives. The organization therefore seeks to promote the whole range of humanitarian principles so as to prevent — or at the very least to limit — the worst excesses of war.In its prevention programmes, the ICRC targets in particular those people and groups who determine the fate of victims of armed conflict or who can obstruct or facilitate ICRC action. These groups include armed forces, police, security forces and other weapons bearers, decision-makers and opinion-leaders at local and international level and, with an eye to the future, teenagers, students and their teachers.The strategy behind these activities comprises three levels:awareness-building;promotion of humanitarian law through teaching and training;integration of humanitarian law into official legal, educational and operational curricula.The ultimate aim is to influence people's attitudes and behaviour so as to improve the protection of civilians and other victims in times of armed conflict, facilitate access to the victims and improve the security of humanitarian action.Target audience: armed forces, police, security forces and other weaponsbearers, decision-makers and opinion-leaders at local and internationallevel and, with an eye to the future, teenagers, students and their teachers.
21 ICRC mine/unexploded ordnance (UXO) awareness programmes: About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistancePreventive actionpromotion of humanitarian lawICRC mine/unexploded ordnance awareness programmesHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationICRC mine/unexploded ordnance (UXO) awareness programmes:ICRC mine/unexploded ordnance (UXO) awareness programmes: an integrated community-based approachThe overall goal of a mine/unexploded ordnance (UXO) awareness programme consists in reducing the number of mine/UXO casualties by changing behaviour and promoting appropriate alternative long-term solutions. Mine/UXO awareness programmes may be viewed as the interface between mine/UXO affected communities and the humanitarian sector (including the mine action sector).BackgroundThe history and mission of the mine/UXO (unexploded ordnance) awareness programme and the involvement of the ICRC in the landmines issue from the early 1990s as part of its efforts to help alleviate the suffering caused by war.ConceptThe important elements of mine/UXO awareness programme - data collection, community involvement and integration with other programmes.ICRC programmes worldwideCountry-by-country breakdown of the mine/UXO-awareness programmes that ICRC has been running, either directly or through the National Red Cross/Red Crescent Societies.To reduce the number of mine/UXO casualties by changing behaviour andpromoting appropriate alternative long-term solutions.
22 Humanitarian diplomacy About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistancePreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationHumanitarian diplomacyHumanitarian diplomacyThe ICRC uses humanitarian diplomacy to make the States aware of humanitarian problems and issues. It seeks to share its concerns with the international community. It also endeavours to heighten awareness of humanitarian imperatives and principles in different international fora, including the United Nations.To make the States aware of humanitarian problems and issues.
23 Private sector relations About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistancePreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationPrivate sector relationsICRC relations with the private sector: working with companiesThe ICRC has two clear objectives when building its relations with the private sector: to enhance its capacity to help the victims of war, and to promote humanitarian principles with companies operating in war-prone areas.The business community has taken several initiatives in the area of corporate social responsibility, and some companies have recently approached the ICRC with a view to supporting its humanitarian activities. The ICRC has also contacted several firms to benefit from technological innovations that contribute to the development of humanitarian action in the field.With the advance of globalisation, the private sector is playing an increasingly prominent role in international relations. As a result of geological and commercial interests, some companies find themselves increasingly involved in conflict-prone situations.Supporting the ICRC: for companies that wish to support ICRC's humanitarian activitiesHumanitarian responsibility: for companies that operate in war-prone situationsTo enhance its capacity to help the victims of war, and to promotehumanitarian principles with companies operating in war-prone areas.
24 Cooperation with National Societies About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesProtectionAssistancePreventive actionHumanitarian diplomacyPrivate sector relationsCooperation with National SocietiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationCooperation with National SocietiesCooperation between National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the ICRCThe purpose of ICRC cooperation activities is to enhance and build upon the existing capacities of National Societies so that they can fulfil their responsibilities as members of the Movement in providing humanitarian services in their respective countries.These cooperation programmes focus on three areas of activity: preparing to bring assistance to those affected by conflict and internal strife (preparedness and response); promoting international humanitarian law (IHL) and spreading knowledge of the principles, ideals and activities of the Movement; and restoring family links as part of the worldwide Red Cross and Red Crescent tracing network. The ICRC and the National Societies derive many advantages from their mutually supportive relationship. Victims of conflict receive wider and more efficient services through the coordinated capacities of the various components of the Movement. The ICRC's accumulated knowledge and expertise gained over years of operational experience form a solid basis on which National Societies can build their capacity in the three programme areas mentioned. In return, the ICRC benefits from the National Society's knowledge of the local context, conditions, people and culture as well as from its infrastructure throughout the country.Victims of conflict receive wider and more efficient services through thecoordinated capacities of the various components of the Movement.
25 Civil-military relations in armed conflict About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictCooperation in practiceResourcesMore informationCivil-military relations in armed conflictThe general frameworkThe ICRC’s starting point in defining its relationship with the military is the Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent as well as the relevant provisions of international humanitarian law. They provide the general framework for the nature and scope of this relationship.The ICRC works independently of any objective of a political or military nature. Its activities include not only assistance to the victims of armed conflict and internal violence but also – fundamentally - their protection, on the basis of both humanitarian law and principles.The following three points are important for the ICRC. They concern the respective nature of military intervention and humanitarian action as well as the relationship between the two and possibilities for cooperation.1. The objective of the ICRC's humanitarian action is not to settle conflicts but to protect human dignity and save lives. ICRC humanitarian activities cannot in any way be subordinate to political and/or military objectives and considerations.2. The primary objective of multinational military missions should, in the ICRC's view, be to establish and maintain order and security and to facilitate a comprehensive settlement of the conflict.3. The ICRC must maintain its independence of decision-making and action, while consulting closely with international military missions which are deployed in the same theatre of operations. There should be consultation at every stage, at both strategic and operational levels.Within the International Red Cross and the Red Crescent Movement, the ICRC seeks to exercise leadership regarding the policy and operational aspects of civilian-military relations in armed conflict. In particular, it provides clear directives for the relationship between National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies working as "Participating National Red Cross or Red Crescent Societies" (i.e. contributing to a Red Cross / Red Crescent operations on foreign soil) and the military contingents of their respective countries. Should such a relationship be problematic in terms of respect for the Movement's Fundamental Principles, appropriate action will be taken by the ICRC, in accordance with the Movement's Statutes and the Seville Agreement.The ICRC’s starting point in defining its relationship with the militaryis the Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent aswell as the relevant provisions of international humanitarian law.
26 Cooperation in practice About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictCooperation in practiceResourcesMore informationCooperation in practicePassive protection versus active one.Sticking to the Movement's principles.Cooperation in practiceDialogue with political and military policy-makers and decision-makersThe ICRC seeks to establish and/or maintain a dialogue with the political and military circles that formulate the policy for military intervention in emergencies arising from armed conflict. Particular attention is paid to developing dialogue between the relevant agencies and bodies of the United Nations, NATO and the European Union. The primary aim of such a dialogue is to promote the ICRC's view of humanitarian action and, where necessary, to foster and maintain contacts useful for operational cooperation and for enhancing respect for international humanitarian law.Moreover, the ICRC seeks such dialogue outside the Western world as well, especially in regions where there is a marked desire to "regionalize" peace-keeping.Operational cooperation with peace-keeping forcesWhen possible, the ICRC fosters contact with a view to exchanging relevant information, especially in situations where it is operating in the same theatre as military forces. Where necessary, the ICRC assigns one or more persons to be in charge of liaison with the military command in the field and others, at headquarters, with the supreme military command concerned.The ICRC also maintains contact with the relevant political and military authorities, urging them to clearly define the mandate of peace-keeping forces clearly in terms of its humanitarian implications so as to avoid any ambiguity with its own mandate and role. It tries to ensure in particular that military action does not impinge on the impartiality, neutrality and independence of its work. It endeavours, too, to make sure that international humanitarian law is respected by international military missions.Without resorting as a rule (which may be waived in exceptional circumstances) to armed protection for its own operations, including relief convoys, it welcomes any efforts by international military missions to create a safe environment for humanitarian activities.Protection of ICRC equipment and facilities by armed guardsThe ICRC does not rule out the protection of its equipment and facilities by armed guards in situations where such protection is considered indispensable (for example, because crime is rife). However the impact of such arrangements on the perception of ICRC neutrality and impartiality is regularly assessed.Use by the ICRC of military or civil defence resourcesIn general, the ICRC is wary about using military or civil defence resources, considering that such use should be impelled by needs rather than prompted by availability. The ICRC does not object to their use by other humanitarian organizations provided that its own activities are not impeded thereby.In cases where the ICRC does use such resources (because they are offered on conditions that provide a clear advantage or because comparable civilian assets are not available), it makes sure that their use poses no threat to it being perceived as neutral and impartial and is in keeping with its operational strategy and principles.The ICRC's contribution to trainingBy means of courses on international humanitarian law and the basic principles governing humanitarian action, the ICRC personnel participating seeks to influence, or be directly involved in the training of military personnel participating in military missions abroad. To this end it establishes and maintains organization-to-organization relations with military academies and other facilities that train military and civilian personnel for such missions. It provides the measure of cooperation which it finds appropriate, ranging from ad hoc contributions to formal and long-term cooperation (such as that in the programme launched with SHAPE)The ICRC also endeavours through its training programmes to familiarize its staff with international military missions and the various concepts of civil-military cooperation applied in the field.ICRC participation in conferences on the relationship between military and humanitarian actionBy taking an active part in multilateral and other conferences dealing with the relationship between military and humanitarian action, the ICRC aims to promote its view of crisis management and to share its operational experience. It also seeks to develop and maintain a network of contacts among those who deal with issues of international security.The participation of the ICRC in such events is determined by the possibilities it is given to contribute to the debate and/or the relevance for it of the subject matter to be discussed.ICRC participation in military exercisesThe ICRC takes part – selectively - in military training exercises when invited to do so and when such exercises are intended to be a vehicle for training in the military management of crises which includes the humanitarian/military relationship. Its aim on such occasions is to make its mandate and activities better known and to spread knowledge of international humanitarian law; its contribution should begin at the planning stage. Priority is given to international exercises.
27 International Humanitarian Law Emblem Activities About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesFinancing and budgetHuman resourcesICRC in figuresMore informationResources
28 ICRC expenditure in 2002 totalled 821.7 million Swiss francs About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesFinancing and budgetHuman resourcesICRC in figuresMore informationFinancing and budgetFinanceICRC expenditure in 2002 totalled million Swiss francs (Sfr), i.e million for headquarters and million for the field) For 2003, the initial ICRC headquarters budget amounts to Sfr million (US$ million April 2003 exchange rate (US$ 1 = Sfr 1.351)), 62.44% of which is allocated to "field support" and 26.54% to the promotion of international humanitarian law. The initial field budget comes to Sfr million (US$ ). The initial total budget therefore amounts to Sfr million. Africa accounts for a substantial proportion of the field budget (Sfr million or 40.9%), followed by Asia (Sfr million or 21.2%) and Europe / North America (Sfr million or 16%). The operations with the highest budgets are being conducted in Afghanistan (Sfr 89.6 million), Israel and the occupied / autonomous territories (Sfr 71.2 million), the Russian Federation (Sfr 47.5 million), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Sfr 46.4 million), Sudan (Sfr 46.1 million), Colombia (Sfr 34.8 million) and Rwanda (Sfr 27.4 million).ICRC expenditure in 2002 totalled million Swiss francs(146.8 million for headquarters and million for the field).
29 About the ICRCInternational Humanitarian LawEmblemActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesFinancing and budgetHuman resourcesICRC in figuresMore informationHuman resourcesHuman resourcesPersonnelNearly 12,000 staff worked to improve the lot of millions of victims of war and armed violence in 2002.The average number of ICRC staff at the end of 2002 was as follows:Headquarters: 826Field: 11,047 (1,021 expatriate, 205 National Society, 9,821 local staff)TOTAL: 11,873Over half of these are specialized staff – administrators, secretaries, doctors, nurses, interpreters, engineers, etc. – the others being delegates, with a variety of skills. These expatriates work in more than 79 delegations spread across the globe and are backed up by some 9,821 local employees.Our work in the field is supported and coordinated by almost 826 staff at ICRC headquarters in Geneva. With a few exceptions, all headquarters posts are filled by ICRC personnel thoroughly familiar with the organization's activities, having held at least three field postings.Priorities can change very rapidly, so all ICRC personnel must be highly flexible and available for whatever duties may be required. They must be ready to leave for any destination at a moment's notice and be able to adapt to sudden changes in their professional and personal lives.The situations the ICRC deals with are becoming ever more complex and at times dangerous. We therefore seek mature, motivated people with the potential for personal development. Although good training and professional experience are important, personal experience is also a decisive. In order to work in the unfamiliar environment of a country at war or emerging from war, the essential qualities are team spirit, the ability to interact with people from a wide variety of backgrounds and cope with stress and the difficult situations that cause it, plus a liking for inter-cultural contacts.More than 1,200 expatriates backed up by some 9,000 local employees are currently on field missions for the ICRC.
30 2'002 About the ICRC International Humanitarian Law Emblem Activities Civil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesFinancing and budgetHuman resourcesICRC in figuresMore informationICRC in figures2'002Protection in warVisits to detaineesICRC delegates visited 448,063 detainees held in 2,007 places of detention in more than 75 countries. Of this number, 26,727 detainees were registered and visited in 2002 for the first time. A total of 47,205 detention certificates were issued. Detainees who were not individually monitored but nevertheless benefited from ICRC assistance are included in the total number visited.2. Restoration of family linksThe ICRC collected and distributed 978,724 Red Cross messages, thus enabling members of families separated as a result of conflict, disturbances or tension to be reunited or to exchange news.It established the whereabouts of 1,635 people for whom tracing requests had been filed by their families.The ICRC also helped 2,320 people to rejoin their families. It issued travel documents that enabled 5,704 people to return to their home countries or to settle in a host country.3. AssistanceIn 2002, 43 of the ICRC's 79 operational and regional delegations ran aid programmes. The bulk of the work was carried out in Afghanistan, Israel and the occupied / autonomous territories, Iraq, the northern Caucasus, Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.Economic securityDuring the year, ICRC activities to ensure economic security directly benefited some 1.5 million people, 670,000 of them on a monthly basis. An average of 221,000 internally displaced people and 343,000 residents received monthly food aid and other supplies; the remaining recipients were refugees. The three major such operations were carried out in Afghanistan, the northern Caucasus and Israel and the occupied / autonomous territories. In the latter case, the ICRC initiated a large-scale voucher programme in urban areas.Worldwide, the ICRC provided aid (food, cooking utensils and hygiene items) to 107,900 persons deprived of their freedom. This included regular assistance for some 97,000 Rwandans.Taking a comprehensive approach, the economic security unit carried out multidisciplinary reviews to orient aid programmes and ensure an optimal impact on beneficiaries' lives. Such reviews were carried out in Angola, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and the northern Caucasus.Water and habitatIn 2002, the ICRC's water and habitat unit was involved in water, sanitation and construction work in over 40 countries. These projects catered for the needs of some 14 million people worldwide at a cost of about Sfr 78 million. They were implemented by a team of some 80 expatriate engineers and 340 local engineers and technicians.In Iraq, in addition to contingency planning, ICRC engineers and technicians continued to share their expertise with their Iraqi counterparts through targeted projects to upgrade the ageing water and sewage facilities and maintain at least minimum services for the population of urban and suburban areas. In Afghanistan, following the acute phase of the conflict in October 2001, a number of projects were launched throughout the country to improve water supply, sanitation and health care.In addition, the ICRC carried out urban water-supply projects in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, Guinea and Kosovo. It pursued major rural water and sanitation projects throughout the year in Angola, Ethiopia, Kenya, Guinea, Liberia, Myanmar, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka and Sudan. The ICRC also supplied emergency water aid to internally displaced people in Afghanistan, Angola, the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Indonesia, Liberia, the northern Caucasus and Sudan. Medical facilities were upgraded in numerous places in Afghanistan, Iraq, Liberia, Burundi, Angola, Chechnya, Somalia and Sudan. Health careDuring the year, the ICRC regularly supported 67 hospitals and 267 other health-care facilities around the world and gave 2.7 outpatient consultations. Community programmes were implemented in 12 countries, sometimes (e.g. Colombia) with National Society participation.More than 14,400 war-wounded were admitted to ICRC-supported hospitals, which performed more than 90,000 operations. The organization regularly supported 24 first-aid posts situated near combat zones, which provided emergency treatment for some 1,600 war-wounded.As in previous years, the ICRC's health services unit continued to provide technical expertise for a range of programmes. For example, it ensured quality control of tuberculosis programmes in the southern Caucasus. An assessment tool for monitoring hospital performance was improved and used in three facilities. Care for the disabledThe ICRC's physical rehabilitation unit provided support for more than 50 limb-fitting centres in 21 countries, enabling patients to be fitted with 16,921 prostheses and 13,365 orthoses. In addition, 1,598 wheelchairs and 17,052 pairs of crutches were distributed, most of them locally manufactured. Training of local staff was a priority in the endeavour to improve sustainable services for patients. A newly established working group began to identify and develop the needed teaching materials and draw up a training policy for local technical staff, based on internationally accepted standards.4. ICRC cooperation with National SocietiesAn increasing number of ICRC activities for victims of conflict and internal strife are implemented jointly with National Societies, wherever their network, structure and capacity permit. In joint operations, the ICRC coordinates all input from components of the Movement and helps build the capacity of the local National Society. In 2002, a total of 44 National Societies in countries affected by armed conflict or internal strife worked with the ICRC in programmes ranging from aid distribution and medical services to tracing and preventive action. Furthermore, 15 National Societies from third countries capable of mobilizing support and taking a direct part in international relief activities (known as participating National Societies – PNS) were also involved in the implementation of ICRC objectives as part of 47 specific projects carried out in 22 countries. In 2002, the ICRC budgeted Sfr 57 million for its programme to strengthen National Society capacity (cooperation programmes), providing support for:· 145 National Societies in their work to promote and spread knowledge of humanitarian law and the Fundamental Principles;· 110 National Societies in their work to restore family links;· 82 National Societies in the areas of conflict preparedness and response;· 67 National Societies in their general coordination tasks (Sfr 10.5 million).
31 www.icrc.org About the ICRC International Humanitarian Law Emblem ActivitiesCivil-military relations in armed conflictResourcesMore informationMore informationMore and updated version maybe find on ICRC web-site, available in English, French and Spanish.
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